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Border Disputes and Warfare

Border Disputes and Warfare > Border Ruffians and Jayhawkers > Free State perspective
122 Topic Specific Items
Letter, John Doy to Mr. Strong
Author: Doy, John
Date: October 19, 1854

John Doy, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to a Mr. Strong, described an incident in which a Westport, Missouri man charged him extra money for notary services because he "was a Yankee."

Keywords: Antislavery; Doy, John; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Notaries; Proslavery

Secret sign, password, and obligations
Author: Vigilance Club
Date: ca. 1855

A description of the secret sign, password, and obligations for members of a Free State vigilance club. The club was headquartered in Lawrence.

Keywords: Free state; Vigilance committees

Letter, C. Robinson to Rev. E. E. Hale
Author: Robinson, Charles
Date: April 9, 1855

Charles Robinson, writing from Lawrence, K. T. to Edward Everett Hale, commented that Free State supporters were forming military companies in response to perceived "outrageous conduct" by Missourians during the March 30, 1855, election of representatives for the territorial legislature. Robinson asked Hale to send two hundred Sharp's rifles and two cannon for the use of Lawrence settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Cannons; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state; Guns; Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Militia; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Proslavery activities; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Sharps rifles; Weapons (see also Guns)

Statement, William Phillips, Sworn before Samuel Lecompte, Chief Justice of Kansas Territory
Author: Phillips, William
Date: May 23, 1855

William Phillips, a Leavenworth resident, testified before Chief Justice Samuel Lecompte and described an incident in which Phillips, an anti-slavery proponent, was tarred and feathered by a group of Weston, Missouri pro-slavery supporters.

Keywords: Antislavery; Border ruffians; Chief justice; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Phillips, William; Proslavery; Proslavery activities

Letter, Amos A. Lawrence to Mr. J. [James] B. Abbott
Author: Lawrence, Amos Adams
Date: August 11, 1855

Amos A. Lawrence wrote from Boston to James Abbott in Hartford, Conneticut, with shipping instructions for the 100 sharps rifles he would procure. Lawrence requested that they be "packed in casks like hardware" and to bill him for expenses incurred.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Free state activities; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Sharps rifles; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter, Marc [Parrott] to Dear Edd [Edwin A. Parrott]
Author: Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879
Date: November 25, 1855

Marcus Parrott wrote from Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory, to his brother, Edwin A. Parrott, in Dayton, Ohio. Marc told his brother about his recent efforts in defending Cole McCrea, on trial before Judge Lecompte for murder. He also urged his brother to come to Kansas Territory by describing business and land purchase opportunities there. Marc also referred to an upcoming meeting of free state men, which would serve "as a counterblast to the proslavery one".

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Balls (parties); Business enterprises; Free state activities; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; McCrea, Cole; Parrott, Edwin A.; Parrott, Marcus J., 1828-1879; United States. General Land Office

Photograph, Free-State Battery
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1856

During the year 1856, the pro-slavery people of Missouri virtually cut off free-state emigration to Kansas Territory by the way of the Missouri River. Numerous emigrant parties were intercepted and turned back. This circumstance led to an organized emigration to Kansas Territory overland through Iowa. Parties came in organized companies and were generally armed. These arms were furnished largely through organized movements in the Eastern states from which the emigrants came. In a number of instances cannons were brought by these emigrant parties. This daguerreotype shows one of the cannons brought by a company to Topeka in 1856.

Keywords: Cannons; Daguerreotypes; Firearms; Free State Battery; Free state; Free state activities; Free state militia; Guns; Photographs and Illustrations

Letter, J. H. Lane to Gov. of Minnesota [Willis A. Gorman]
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: January 22, 1856

This "Appeal of Gen. Lane & Gov. Robinson" to Willis A. Gorman, the territorial governor of Minnesota, was a call for assistance during Kansas Territory's present crisis: the territory face, wrote Lane and Robinson from Lawrence, K.T., on January 22, 1856, "an overwhelming force of the Citizens of Missouri" organized for invasion on the Missouri border.

Keywords: Free state cause; Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Minnesota; Missouri; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894

Letter, [Josiah Miller] to Dear Father and Mother
Author: Miller, Josiah
Date: January 25, 1856

Josiah Miller, responding to his family's concerns about traveling West, wrote to his Father and Mother in South Carolina. He told them that they would be better off leaving the South, and that they should begin their travels west as soon as they were ready, in spite of any violent conflict that might be taking place in Kansas Territory. Miller referred to a specific incident occurring a few days earlier on January 17, when free state men, on their way home from an election of State officers under the Topeka Constitution, were attacked by a group of Missourians. Miller also communicated that, although he was a free state man, he did not like the "Yankees' " approach to the conflict with the proslavery supporters.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Reese P.; Emigration and immigration; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; South Carolina; Southerners

Letter, F. A. Hunt to Thos. H. Webb
Author: Hunt, F. A.
Date: March 14, 1856

F. A. Hunt, owner of a steamboat and land agent company, wrote from St. Louis, Missouri to Thomas H. Webb, secretary of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. Hunt informed Webb that a shipment of 100 rifles and two guns had been seized at Lexington, Missouri while in transit to Leavenworth via the Steamboat Arabia. Hunt stated that unless the weapons had been taken by authority of the U.S. government, the steamboat was liable for the loss. Hunt urged Webb to be more cautious in making shipments of weapons to Kansas.

Keywords: Arabia (Steamboat); Border ruffians; Emigrant aid companies; Guns; Hunt, F. A.; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Steamboats; Weapons (see also Guns); Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to My Dear Parents and Sister
Author: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: April 6, 1856

In this, his first extant letter from Kansas Territory, Oscar Learnard wrote his parents and sister in Vermont that Lawrence was now his "distant and strangely romantic retreat." This letter recorded Learnard's early impressions of "unfortunate abused Kansas." The situation was bad, but the reality of "Kansas affairs" was being distorted in the Eastern press. Learnard made reference to the bogus laws, the Free State movement, and the anticipated congressional investigation.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Emigration and immigration; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Learnard, S. T.; Vermont

Letter, [unknown] to Hiram Hill
Author: No authors specified.
Date: April 30, 1856

The author of this letter, possibly C. A. Wright, wrote to Hiram Hill from Lawrence, Kansas Territory. He discussed continuing speculation efforts in Lawrence, but particular ones were becoming rife with politics. Also mentioned is the recent completion of the Free State Hotel, which would help ease the recent emigration rush. The author described events surrounding the shooting of Sheriff Samuel Jones "by an unknown hand". The shooting followed the issuing of arrest warrants for George Deitzler, Gaius Jenkins, and others, for their failure to assist with the arrest of S. N. Wood, who was charged with aiding the rescue of a free state man from prison the past November.

Keywords: Deitzler, George W.; Emigration and immigration; Free State Hotel; Free state activities; Hill, Hiram; Jenkins, Gaius; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land speculation; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Violence; Warrants (Law); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Letter, George Washington Brown to his mother
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856

George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Writing to his mother on the day before his arrest, Brown expressed concern that his life could be in danger. He instructed his mother to use his estate to provide support for the Herald of Freedom.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Newspapers; Prisoners

George Washington Brown to Mr. Fowler
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: May 13, 1856

George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Written from Kansas City, Missouri, to a friend on the day before his arrest, Brown expressed concern that his life could be in danger. He enclosed an outline for a "Documentary History of Kansas" and asked Fowler to publish a book based on the outline.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state cause; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Kansas City, Missouri; Missouri; Newspapers; Prisoners; Treason

Letter, G. W. Brown to Eli Thayer, Esq.
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: June 4, 1856

George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. G. W. Brown described the sack of Lawrence and the destruction of his printing press, commented upon the harshness of his prison conditions, and asked Eli Thayer to do anything in his power to help secure his release.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Herald of Freedom; Journalism; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Press; Prisoners; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Slave power; Thayer, Eli, 1819-1899; Treason

Letter, O. E. Learnard to Dear Friends
Author: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: June 6, 1856

From an embattled Lawrence, Learnard again wrote of near daily "occurrences of exciting interest," including skirmishes between the two "antagonistic parties" and actions of federal troops to "quell disturbances." The problem was with Missourians who had crossed over the border, not "actual settlers." Learnard claimed to be ready to do battle with them over the issue of "slavery or liberty in this country," and predicted that if things continued in this same direction, the entire country would soon be "embroiled in civil war."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Civil war; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Federal troops; Free state perspective; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; Skirmishing; Slavery; Vermont; Violence

Letter, C. A. W. [Charles A. Wright] to Mr. [Hiram] Hill
Author: Wright, Charles A.
Date: June 16, 1856

Charles Wright wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Wright spoke passionately about the free state cause after the Sack of Lawrence and the Pottawatomie Massacre, imploring "eastern friends" for help. In Wright's words, "talk will do no good that time is past what we now need is men money and rifles". He added that southerners were "using every effort" to drive free staters from the Territory. U.S. Troops were attempting to disband the ruffians, though according to Wright they only dispersed and reorganized elsewhere.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Hill, Hiram; Skirmishing; United States. Army; Wright, Charles A.

Letter, S. N. Simpson to Hiram Hill
Author: No authors specified.
Date: June 17, 1856

Samuel Simpson wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to Hiram Hill. Simpson reported the recent shooting death of a free state man by a proslavery Tennessee man. Despite this and other eruptions of violence, Simpson declared that " Lawrence as a city is yet in existence and from the character of the people I think we shall long exist" and that "slavery will cut her own life". He displayed little faith that the Territory's present government could produce and uphold a proslavery constitution. Simpson also mentioned Hill's property holdings, all full and paying rent.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state support; Hill, Hiram; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Simpson, Samuel Newell; Violent deaths; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Letter, Orville C. Brown to My dear Sir
Author: No authors specified.
Date: June 24, 1856

This letter, presumably written by Orville Chester Brown, is an excellent example of a free state perspective on the events of 1856 in Kansas Territory. Speaking in rather eloquent terms, the author expresses anger at the United States government for their refusal to aid free state settlers.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Free state perspective; United States. Army; Westport, Missouri

George Washington Brown, Near Lecompton, KT to I.B. Donaldson
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 9, 1856

George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856 on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Brown wrote to Israel B. Donaldson, the U.S. Marshal in Kansas, requesting that he terminate and settle a contract with his wife, Mrs. Lois Brown, for boarding the prisoners. Brown asked to board with fellow prisoners John Brown, Jr. and Henry H. Williams and sought to distance himself from Charles Robinson and his followers.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Mrs. George Washington; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Herald of Freedom; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Prisoners; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; United States marshals; Williams, Henry H.

Letter, William H. Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Author: Leeman, William H.
Date: July 15, 1856

William H. Leeman, a follower of John Brown in Kansas and eventually a casualty of the Harpers Ferry raid, wrote this letter to his mother while "traveling across the prairies of Iowa" in July 1856. Although he briefly mentions an encounter with "2,000 border ruffians," he assures his mother that he is safe, in good health, and well armed, and that he is much happier in this "adventure" than had he staid home and "worked in a shop."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cannons; Free state militia; Iowa; Leeman, William H.; Militia; Missouri; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, Thad [Thaddeus Hyatt] to Dear Al [A. L. Winans]
Author: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: July 17, 1856

Thaddeus Hyatt, writing from Burlington, Iowa, to A. L. Winans, lamented the current situation in Kansas and the federal government's hostile attitude toward the free-state settlers in the territory. He also expressed his hatred for Southerners and his conviction that the issue of slavery in Kansas will be "one of blood." Hyatt was concerned that liberty would suffer at the hands of pro-slavery supporters, and he was eager to continue working diligently for the anti-slavery cause.

Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Emigration and immigration; Hyatt, Thaddeus; National Kansas Committee; Sectionalism (United States); Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874; Winans, A. L.

George Washington Brown, Near Lecompton, KT to his mother
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: July 24, 1856

George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper, was one of seven free state leaders arrested on May 14, 1856, on charges of high treason and held prisoner by federal troops near Lecompton. Brown, despite his imprisonment, expressed optimism about Kansas's prospects of becoming a free state.

Keywords: Antislavery; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Lecompton, Kansas Territory

George Washington Brown to Friends
Author: Brown, George W (George Washington), 1820-1915
Date: ca. August 1856

Unsigned letter, probably written by George Washington Brown while he was being held prisoner at a camp near Lecompton on treason charges, offering military advice to free state leaders and commenting on events in the Lecompton area.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Free state activities; Free state perspective; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Military

Letter, W. W. Updegraff to William Hutchinson
Author: Updegraff, W. W.
Date: August 5, 1856

W. W. Updegraff, writing from Osawatomie, KT, described pro-slavery forces stealing horses from free state supporters, the need of free state settlers in the Osawatomie area for financial assistance, and his views on the potential for war in the event of John C. Fremont's election as president in the November 1856 election.

Keywords: Election, Presidential, 1856; Fremont, John Charles, 1813-1890; Horse stealing; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Relief; Updegraff, W. W.

Letter, O. E. L[earnard] to Dear Father [S. T. Learnard]
Author: Learnard, Oscar E.
Date: August 10, 1856

Oscar Learnard wrote from Lawrence of his continued commitment to the "Sacked City," insisting that he would not be "bullied or frightened" by those committing outrages in Kansas Territory. He commented on the political composition of the territory and Lawrence, where he found many Douglas Democrats. Although there were some "fanatics" and "abolitionists," most residents of Lawrence were "western men" who had been driven to oppose the administration by the outrages. He insisted that the significance of the New England Emigrant Company had been exaggerated and that although more violent confrontations were likely, Kansas would eventually be free.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Douglas Democrats; Dragoons; Free State Party; Kansas question; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Learnard, Oscar E., 1832-1911; New England Emigrant Aid Company; Pierce administration; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Smith, Persifer F.

Letters, J. H. Lane to "Friends" [Robinson and others] and C. Robinson to "Dear Sir" [J.H. Lane]
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date: August 11, 1856

Copied by R. J. Hinton from his journal in preparation of one of his publications on the Kansas war, the first letter is Jim Lane's offer to rescue the Lecompton prisoners (Robinson, George W. Brown, Gaius Jenkins, et al) and Charles Robinson's reply, suggesting that in light of current congressional activity the plan was ill-advised. Both were dated August 11, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Congress (See United States. Congress); Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.

Circular, Kansas -- Help! Help!
Author: Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence Citizens
Date: August 13, 1856

This circular was composed of two parts. The first section was a letter written from Lawrence to the National Kansas Committee, asked for help because of the conflict in Kansas, stating that "instant action alone can save our people from destruction." The letter briefly mentioned the recent attack on Lawrence and the proslavery forces which were gathering and organizing. Although there was a lull in the fighting, the citizens of Lawrence were looking for assistance and relief. The second part was a response written by H. B. Hurd, secretary of the National Kansas Committee, encouraging emigration to Kansas but raising the possibility that free state settlers in the territory must at times defend their rights. He wrote that "Kansas is now in a state of open war."

Keywords: Circulars; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Hurd, H. B.; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; National Kansas Committee; Proslavery activities; Relief; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856

Letter, [John Brown, Jr.] to [John Brown]
Author: Brown, Jr., John
Date: August 14, 1856

Although this document is unsigned, it is almost certainly a letter from John Brown, Jr., to his father. The former was at a "camp" near Lecompton, still in the custody of territorial officials, and he wanted his father to come for a visit. John, Jr. provides instructions on how this might be done safely; he believed it could be, but warned, "don't let them get you."

Keywords: Babcock, Carmi William; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Free state cause; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners

Letter, E. S. Whitney to Dear Uncle Hiram [Hill]
Author: Whitney, E.S.
Date: August 20, 1856

E. S. Whitney wrote from Sumner, Kansas Territory, to her uncle, Hiram Hill. Whitney apologized for the long delay in communicating with him, and explained that her husband, Thaddeus Whitney, had been very busy lately and was doing his best to complete Hill's home. She also described her experience watching the border ruffians invade Lawrence, and her friends' and neighbors' reactions to the situation. Despite the violence and uncertainty, she was "not sorry yet" that she had come to Kansas, and told Hill that her husband would write him shortly to discuss business matters.

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Construction; Funerals; Hill, Hiram; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Skirmishing; Sumner, Kansas Territory; Violence; Whitney, E.S.; Whitney, Thaddeus L.

Letter, [Orville] Chester [Brown] to My dear friend
Author: Brown, Orville Chester, 1811-1904
Date: September 2, 1856

This eloquent letter, presumably written by Orville Chester Brown, provides an example of the free state perspective on the events of 1856. It includes references to a number of key personalities and places that played a vital role during the struggle for Kansas. Brown writes that "Kansas is the scene of bloody strife," as "2000 armed men" from Missouri were rumored to have crossed into Kansas.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Brown, Spencer; Free state perspective; Georgia; Missouri; Violence

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 4, 1856

From Topeka, Kagi wrote his father about his (Kagi's) personal situation and more generally about the civil war in Kansas. Several thousand "armed Missourians" had been committing outrages against free state citizens with the support of proslave leaders--Wilson Shannon, Samuel Lecompte, and Daniel Woodson. Freestaters, according to Kagi, were just then mounting an effective defense of both Lawrence and Topeka, both primary targets of the proslavery forces--"the enemy are determined to 'wipe out', as they say, both these towns."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompte, Samuel D. (Samuel Dexter), 1814-1888; Militia; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Woodson, Daniel

Letter, N. McCracken to Judge [John A.] Halderman
Author: McCracken, Nelson
Date: September 4, 1856

Writing from the "Missouri River" on September 4, 1856, Nelson McCracken, reportedly one of Leavenworth's leading free-state businessmen, asked J. A. Halderman if it would be safe for him "to Return to Leavenworth to do Business or Settle my unfinished Business." McCracken and several others had recently been forced to leave the city for St. Louis by proslave partisans there, and they petitioned Governor John W. Geary for assistance in reclaiming their property and lawful place in the community.

Keywords: Business; Businessmen; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Halderman, John Adams; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; McCracken, Nelson; Missouri River; St. Louis, Missouri

Buffum Tombstone
Author: No authors specified.
Date: Sept. 17, 1856

Tombstone of David C. Buffum, a free-stater from Massachusetts who was killed by the pro-slavery Kickapoo Rangers on Sept. 17, 1856. Buffum was plowing a field on his farm near Lawrence when the Rangers (including Henry Titus and Sheriff Samuel Jones) stole his horse and shot him. Before he died, Buffum was heard to express the sentiments chiseled on his tombstone: "I am willing to die for the cause of Freedom in Kansas."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Buffum, David C.; Casualties; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state perspective; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Kickapoo Rangers (militia); Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts; Objects; Proslavery activities; Titus, Henry Theodore; Tombstones; Violence; Violent deaths

Letter, M. C. Dickey to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Author: Dickey, Milton C.
Date: October 23, 1856

This letter to Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, written by Milton Dickey from Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, informed Hyatt of Dickey's journey west. The author described the hardships endured by Kansas settlers, as well as the enthralling tale of a free state man who escaped from the prison at Lecompton.

Keywords: Cannons; Dickey, Milton C.; Donalson, Israel B.; Emigration and immigration; Firearms; Free state perspective; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Mt. Pleasant, Iowa; Prisoners; Prisons; Relief; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Sharps rifles; Slavery; United States. Army

Letter, R. J. Hinton to Rev. T. W. Higginson
Author: Hinton, R. J.
Date: November 6, 1856

This letter from R. J. Hinton was written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory and was addressed to Rev. Higginson, a radical abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee. The letter is filled with information about the struggle for Kansas. Hinton mentioned the trials of the free state prisoners at Lecompton and Governor Geary's order to arrest other free state figures. Colonel Titus was also threatening to help the U. S. troops arrest free state men. Apparently a Captain Homes [sic] from New York had become so frustrated that he had collected several followers and was determined to administer his own brand of justice. Hinton did not completely approve of such action, claiming that while it was understandable, it was "not generally beneficial to our cause." Hinton had experienced some personal troubles as well, when some thieves who claimed to be free state men carried off the belongings of his company, settled at Lexington. The letter concluded with updates about the various men in his company.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Dunning, John; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state perspective; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Lexington Township, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Titus, Henry Theodore; United States. Army; White, Martin

Names of prisoners in custody at Lecompton
Author: Hoogland, Edward
Date: November 12, 1856

A list of free state prisoners in custody at Lecompton, Kansas Territory. Most of the prisoners had been captured at the Battle of Hickory Point on September 13, 1856. The list records each prisoner's name, previous state of residence, and reason for imprisonment. The last page of the document lists prisoners who had been released. The list was prepared by Edward Hoogland by order of Governor John Geary.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoogland, Edward; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Prisoners

Letter, J. K. [John Kagi] to My Dear Sisters
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: November 20, 1856

Killed during John Brown's Harpers Ferry raid in October 1859, John Henry Kagi, sometimes known as Brown's "Secretary of War," was "in prison at Lecompton" when he wrote this letter to his sister on November 20, 1856. Kagi, along with John Ritchie and several other free-state partisans, had been arrested by U.S. Marshal I.B. Donelson, supported by federal troops, on September 18 at Topeka and subsequently charged with "highway robbery." (See, Kansas Historical Collections, 4:561) Although "in prison," Kagi assured his sister that he was safe and could be rescued at anytime; "I hesitate only because we may get out some other way, and because a forcible rescue would bring on a terrible winter war, which I do not wish to see."

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Donalson, Israel B.; Free state militia; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Nebraska Territory; Newspapers - Free State; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Samuel C. Smith to Dear Friend [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
Author: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: November 26, 1856

This letter, written from Lawrence, Kansas Territory by Samuel Smith, was addressed to Rev. T. W. Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts. The letter began with several small matters regarding aid for Kansas, and then turned quickly to the most recent events in the struggle between proslavery and free state forces. Apparently, thirty two of the free state prisoners held by U. S. troops at Tecumseh had managed to escape, and Smith rather sarcastically commented that the troops had done a favor to "Uncle Sam" by relieving the government of the cost of supporting all those prisoners. The author also spoke of [Thaddeus] Hyatt's presence in the territory, and of George Washington Brown, editor of the Herald of Freedom. He also informed Higginson that Col. Eldridge and Thomas Eldridge have had complaints filed against them, stating that "nature never designed them for distributions of charity." The letter concludes with information regarding land sales in Leavenworth, and the founding of a new city, Quindaro. In general, Smith's writing style is quite humorous, as well as informative.

Keywords: Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Donalson, Israel B.; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Eldridge, Thomas B.; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Kansas Central Committee; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Relief; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore; Town development; United States. Army; Worcester, Massachusetts

Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to My Dear Sir [Rev. T. W. Higginson]
Author: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: December 1, 1856

This letter was written by Caleb Pratt from Lawrence, Kansas, to Thomas W. Higginson in Worcester, Massachusetts. He thanked Higginson for the revolvers that he had furnished for Pratt's artillery company; Pratt truly appreciated "the high minded reflecting men of the north." Pratt also spoke of the uneasy peace, stating that the free state population were still prepared to fiercely resist any encroachment on their liberty, although they were at times discouraged and war-weary. He also mentioned the election of President Buchanan less than a month before. Pratt informed Higginson of the escape of the free state prisoners from Tecumseh, although he was sure that Higginson was already aware of the incident. Apparently, Pratt had hoped to help with their escape, but he was too late. Other prisoners had also effected an escape from the Lecompton prison.

Keywords: Buchanan, James, 1791-1868; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state militia; Free state perspective; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Pratt, Caleb S.; Prisoners; Stubbs militia company; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Titus, Henry Theodore

Testimony of Capt. S. T. Shore
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 2, 1856

This testimony, a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was collected by the National Kansas Committee under the leadership of Thaddeus Hyatt. Captain Shore was a free state militia captain and was active during the border warfare of 1856. Yet, while he was active in the free state cause, this account focuses on his personal life and his perceptions of the territory. The testimony begins with general information about his family, claim, etc., and then proceeds to his personal opinion of the land and vegetation in Kansas.

Keywords: Agriculture; Crops; Grain; Livestock; Ottawa Creek, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness)

Testimony of S. P. Hand
Author: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 2, 1856

This testimony, a part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was apparently collected by the president of the National Kansas Committee, Thaddeus Hyatt. It relates the tale of S. P. Hand, a soldier in the free state militia who took part in the battle of Fort Titus and was captured at the battle of Hickory Point. His account provides a great deal of information regarding troop movements and the workings of the free state militia.

Keywords: Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Central Relief Committee; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Hand, S. P.; Harvey, James A.; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Prisoners; Shombre, Henry J.; Skirmishing; Titus, Henry Theodore

Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins
Author: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 7, 1856

These testimonies, presumably taken down on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, include personal information about each settler, such as their age, occupation, etc., as well as their experiences in Kansas and their involvement in border warfare and skirmishes with pro-slavery settlers. Each account is descriptive and provides tremendous detail about their individual experiences. The testimonies of MacArthur, Hall, and Hazen are combined into one, with this group testimony split into two separate sections.

Keywords: Battles; Black Jack, Battle of; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Caulkins, Charles Henry; Cutter, Calvin M.; Dunnell, Hinton S.; Dunnell, Horace L.; Firearms; Fort Titus, Battle of; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Guns; Hall, James; Harvey, James A.; Hazen, Jerome; Hickory Point, Battle of; Hoyt, David Starr; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa; Jones, John Tecumseh (Tauy); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; MacArthur, Alexander; Missouri River; Parker, Nathaniel; Prisoners; Prisons; Proslavery activities; Skirmishing; Violence; Walker, Samuel Douglas; Weapons (see also Guns); Weston, Missouri; Wounds and injuries

Testimony of Capt. Thomas Bickerton
Author: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 5, 1856 - December 12, 1856

This testimony, taken down by Thaddeus Hyatt as part of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, is divided into two parts. It begins with descriptions of his life before he came to Kansas Territory and his efforts to set up a claim outside of Lawrence, including his technique for building his sod house. Thomas Bickerton was a well traveled individual and an influential commander of a free state artillery company. He was involved in skirmishes with border ruffians and in the attack on Franklin. Also, General James Lane sent him to Kansas City to obtain a brass howitzer (later known as the Abbott howitzer) for use against the proslavery forces.

Keywords: Abbott howitzer; Barber, Thomas W.; Bickerton, Thomas; Border disputes and warfare; Buffum, David C.; Fort Riley, Kansas Territory; Franklin buildings; Free state militia; Houses; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Roberts, William Young; Sawmills; Skirmishing; Topliff, Charles W.

Testimony of James H. Holmes
Author: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: December 8, 1856

This testimony of James Holmes is a portion of the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, a collection of personal stories recorded by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. Mr. Holmes had studied agricultural chemistry before entering Kansas Territory, and his initial reason for emigrating was his desire to undertake agricultural experiments. He had also intended to join with Clubbs Vegetarian Settlement, which was located on the Neosho River near the north line of the Osage Reserve. He goes into detail about the Neosho valley and its vegetation, mineral deposits, etc. The rest of his account deals with his involvement in the free state militia and his role in defending Osawatomie.

Keywords: Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Cline, Captain; Emigration and immigration; Free state militia; Harvey, James A.; Holmes, James H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Shore, Samuel T.; Skirmishing; Stringfellow, Benjamin F.; Violence

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: December 20, 1856

Just released from "prison" after three months, John H. Kagi wrote to his father (who still resided in their native Ohio but was then in Nebraska City) from Topeka, regarding the poor state of his health and finances, as well as politics and future plans. Kragi wanted his father and/or his father's money in KT as soon as possible.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Democratic Party (U.S.); Free state cause; Free state legislature; Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; Ohio; Topeka Tribune

Kansas Experiences of A.R. Scolen, William Reap, Ephraim Coy, and Capt. Samuel Anderson
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 21, 1856 - December 23, 1856

These testimonies were collected from a number of free state settlers along Pottawatomie Creek, presumably by an associate of the National Kansas Committee. Each account includes personal information about the settler (their origins, family, crops, etc.) and also testimonies of their involvement in the free state militia.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anderson, Samuel; Battles; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Brown, John, Jr.; Casualties; Cline, Captain; Clothing and dress; Coy, Ephraim; Crops; Food; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Illness; Livestock; Militia; Missourians; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Reap, William; Scolen, A.R.; Shore, Samuel T.; Sickness (see Illness); Skirmishing; Travel; Wounds and injuries

Kansas Experience of Charles E. Dewey
Author: Dewey, Charles E.
Date: December 24, 1856

In this testimony, Charles E. Dewey described how his family and others in their party traveled to Kansas from Ohio. The group sought advice from S. C. Pomeroy about where to settle, and at his urging, they located on South Pottawatomie Creek, possibly in Anderson County. He included in this testimony the names and stories of people that he encountered on his journey and during his early years in the territory. One particularly interesting account was the conflict between a group of Germans and Dewey's party over possession of land claims. Dewey also included details of the difficulties for settlers in Kansas Territory during the years 1855 and 1856. Furthermore, within this testimony he states the experiences of the Winkly brothers who were boarding with him.

Keywords: Adair, Samuel Lyle; Claims (see Damage claims or Land claims); Crops; Dewey, Charles E.; Emigration and immigration; Germans; Health; Illness; Land claim disputes; Land claims; Livestock; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Transportation; Weather

Testimonies of Samuel Nickel and Miles Morris
Author: No authors specified.
Date: December 30, 1856

These testimonies, taken down by the National Kansas Committee, related the Kansas experiences of Samuel Nickel and Miles Morris, including their personal backgrounds. Nickel's claim was burned to the ground by Missourians, and he was forced to hide in the woods for fear they would take his life. The testimony of Miles Morris described his settlement on Pottawatomie Creek.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Fort Saunders, Kansas Territory (see also Camp Saunders); Grain; Morris, Miles; Nickel, Samuel; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Violence

James Lane Telescope
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1855-1857

Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects

Photograph, William Frederick Milton Arny
Author: No authors specified.
Date: Circa 1856

W. F. M. Arny was active in numerous territorial Kansas activities, serving as an agent for the National Kansas Committee and as a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was a member of the 1858 territorial legislature and the Topeka legislature. The identification on this photograph indicates that this is a disguise he used in Missouri in 1856.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Card photographs; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; National Kansas Committee; Photographs and Illustrations

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: January 4, 185[7]

From Topeka, shortly after the end of his imprisonment, John Kagi wrote his sister in Bristol, Ohio, a mostly personal letter to say he was eager to return for a short visit, but, he wrote, "I love Kansas [???] than ever, and feel more like laboring with my whole soul's strength for the triumph of her rights."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas question; Ohio; Topeka Tribune; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Richard Mendenhall to Augustus Wattles
Author: Mendenhall, Richard
Date: January 19, 1857

Richard Mendenhall was a missionary at the Shawnee Friends Mission in the 1840s. He returned to Indiana for a time but moved back to Kansas Territory in the fall of 1855. He was in Kansas during the territorial era and wrote Wattles describing an attact on the Friends Mission on August 20, 1856 by proslavery forces. He indicated that they were told to leave or the mission would be burned. However, Mendenhall wrote that David Atchison and other proslavery supporters asked that the Friends be left out of the violence. Mendenhall also described an attempt to form a settlement by men from Georgia about 3 miles from Osawatomie. He wrote that they were friendly at first but they later committed depredations. In response, about 100 free state men ran them off, took $500 in clothing and provisions, and burned a fort they had built. Mendenhall believed that the Battle of Osawatomie was a response to this.

Keywords: Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state support; Friends Mission, Lykins County; Georgia; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Mendenhall, Richard; Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Missionaries; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery; Proslavery settlers; Society of Friends; Wattles, Augustus

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: January 26, 1857

Written on stationery that included a item from the Kansas Tribune, "Appeal of Kansas to the Voters of the Free States," Kagi wrote his father, who was still in Nebraska, regarding his continuing problems with proslavery officials in Lecompton. Kagi was arrested again (quickly made bail) and nearly killed by a mob while there "to report the proceedings" of the territorial legislature, which opened on January 12. (This was the first legislature to meet in Lecompton.)

Keywords: Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Stringfellow, John H.; Territorial government; Topeka Tribune

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "Dear Father"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: January 30, 1857

From the Tribune office in Topeka, Kagi wrote his father on January 30 that he planned to leave for Ohio via Nebraska City (the safest route and also where his father resided at that time) soon, perhaps by February 15; but, apparently before he could mail that letter, on February 1 (note on back on first letter) he wrote that he would be delayed--Kagi was "shot" on Saturday, January 31, in an "affray" with Judge Rush Elmore in Tecumseh (see, Kansas Tribune, Topeka, February 2, 1857).

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Elmore, Rush; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory; St. Louis, Missouri; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Tribune; Violence

Letter, James Redpath to Dear Sir [Thomas W. Higginson]
Author: Redpath, James , 1833-1891
Date: February 5, 1857

James Redpath, a journalist who had spent some time in Kansas, wrote this letter to Thomas Higginson, an abolitionist and agent of the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. Redpath began the letter with a vehement denouncement of Mr. Cutter, after Mr. Cutter allowed the Missourians to arrest him peacefully. Redpath was appalled that Cutter did not even fire a shot. He was obviously distraught, and he sought advice from Higginson on how he should proceed.

Keywords: Cabot, Samuel; Cutter, Calvin M.; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Immigration and early settlement; Redpath, James, 1833-1891

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sisterr"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: February 13, 1857

On February 13, 1857, Kagi informed his sister in Bristol, Ohio, that he wouldn't be able to make the expected spring trip home afterall. He did plan to travel to Nebraska City for a few days, but because he was due to appear in court later in the spring, or lose the $8000 bail that had been posted for him, he didn't have time to journey east. He planned to be back in Topeka for the "Great Mass Convention" of freestate me on March 10. (See, Wilder, Annals of Kansas, 157)

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Courts; Free state cause; Kagi, John Henry; Nebraska City, Nebraska Territory

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear father"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: March 3, 1857

Once again, from Topeka, Kagi wrote his father that his long planned trip to Nebraska City had to be delayed, this time because of high water on the "Kaw river" that "prohibited my crossing" and the state convention, which started in one week. On the positive side, he was still bothered by "the jarring of my head" (the blow inflicted by Elmore with his cane), his wound (gun shot) had nearly healed.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state cause; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Kagi, John Henry; Kansas River, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence

Letter, Hiram Hill to Dear Brother
Author: Hill, Hiram
Date: March 18, 1857

Hiram Hill, en route to Kansas Territory, wrote from Jefferson City, Missouri, to his brother back east. Hill reported that the journey so far had been pleasant, though they had been delayed by a train wreck and were currently waiting for a boat to take them up the River. He mentioned his experiences with border ruffians, finding that they were "civil" unless they "get too much whiskey down". Hill lamented the resignation of Kansas Territory's Governor Geary, but related that he saw the new marshal, who was on his way to K.T., in St. Louis.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Hill, Hiram; Jefferson City, Missouri; Newspapers; Railroads; Transportation; Travel

Letter, Chas. Blair to Capt. John Brown
Author: Blair, Charles
Date: March 20, 1857

During his 1857 fund raising tour, Brown made arrangements with a Connecticut blacksmith, Charles Blair, for the production of a number of spears or "pikes" for use in the Kansas territory. On March 20, Blair wrote from Collinsville that he had the first dozen "spears" ready to send and was eager to see Brown to work out the details for the production of more. (He wrote of production details and cost estimates--this first dozen would cost $12 if Brown decided he wanted no more.)

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Militia; Weapons (see also Guns)

Contract, Charles Blair and John Brown for fabrication of spears
Author: Blair, Charles ; Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: March 30, 1857

Executed on March 30, 1857, with this agreement Blair promised to produce and deliver "One Thousand Spears; with handles fitted of equal quality to one doz already made and sent to Springfield, Mass." Specifications are briefly described, and then the contract reads: "In consideration whereof, John Brown late of Kansas" agreed to make a partial payment of $500 within ten days and another $450 as a final payment thirty days later.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Kansas Territory; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, William Henry Leeman to "Dear Mother"
Author: Leeman, William H.
Date: April 1, 1857

One of several letters in this collection written by young William Leeman, a native of Maine, to members of his family (mother, father, and sisters) during his travels with one of John Brown's company through Iowa and Nebraska, back to Kansas. Several letters were written late in 1856 and early 1857 from Archer, Nebraska Territory, but this one, dated April 7, 1857, was sent from Plymouth, presumably in Brown County, Kansas Territory. Leeman wrote of his plan to return home and bring his family to Kansas, perhaps as early as the summer, if there were no more "trouble" in the territory.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state settlers; Houses; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Leeman, William H.

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Father"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: April 14, 1857

Having finally made and returned from his long-delayed trip to Nebraska City, Kagi wrote his father from Lawrence, where he had gone almost immediately "on business." Although he can't discuss the particulars for fear of "bribed P.M. [post master?] spies," Kagi makes some interesting observations about freestate "prospects" throughout the territory, which "look much more hopeful now than when I left." Kagi mentions some land investment opportunities and the expected arrival of Governor Robert Walker, who would not last long if he tried to enforce the "bogus laws."

Keywords: Atchison County, Kansas Territory; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Land speculation; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri River; Postal service; Stringfellow, John H.; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Letter, Chas. Blair to Mr. [John] Brown
Author: Blair, Charles
Date: April 15, 1857

On April 15, 1857, Blair wrote Brown regarding the latter's report to him that the National Kansas Committee had turned down his request for funds to cover the first payment on the spears. Blair had stopped production, awaiting "further order from you," but said he was willing to make 500 instead of 1000 for the same rate.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hartford, Connecticut; Jayhawkers; National Kansas Committee; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, Chas. Blair to J. [John] Brown Esq.
Author: Blair, Charles ; Brown, John , 1800-1859
Date: April 29, 1857

Brown's blacksmith, Charles Blair, wrote from Collinsville that he had received a draft for $200 and would be pleased to proceed with the completion of the first half of Brown's spear order. Blair seems eager to accommodate Brown in any way possible in order to make this deal work for both of them and the cause.

Keywords: Blair, Charles; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Collinsville, Connecticut; Free state cause; Jayhawkers; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: May 20, 1857

On May 20, 1857, Kagi wrote his sister from Lawrence, explaining that he had been sick with the measles for some time but was now just busy writing for the newspaper and "preparing laws for the Free State Legislature," which was scheduled to convene in June. "We shall try hard to put the State Government into operation."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Free state activities; Free state cause; Free state legislature; Illness; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness)

Letter, T. W. Carter to Capt. John Brown
Author: Carter, T. W.
Date: May 25, 1857

This letter from T. W. Carter announced the shipment of 200 revolvers, etc., to John Brown, via Iowa City, and informed him that the bill for the same had been sent to George S. Stearns, as requested.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Carter, T. W.; Free state cause; Iowa City, Iowa; Jayhawkers; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, T. J. Marsh to George L. Stearns
Author: Marsh, Thomas J.
Date: July 18, 1857

Thomas J. Marsh, who arrived in the Kansas Territory on July 11, 1857, made Lawrence his base of operation. He had made the journey as an agent for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee. His objective was to observe and financially support free state efforts to capture the legislature at the polls in early October (this included conducting a census). During his first week in Kansas Territory, Marsh attended the "entirely harmonious" Free State Party convention in Topeka and reported on initial efforts to organize the campaign. He also seemed very concerned about "petty, personal feuds" among the leadership in the territory. Marsh had personally discussed this issue with the men involved and believed the "discordant elements have been harmonized." Upon his return to Lawrence, Marsh found "U. S. Dragoons parading the streets" and Governor Walker threatening to make numerous arrests because of the unauthorized election of city officials the previous Monday.

Keywords: Blood, James; Census; Conway, Martin Franklin; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Dragoons; Election, Territorial Legislature, October 1857; Factionalism; Free State Party; Free state support; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Marsh, Thomas J.; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Topeka Constitution; Travel; United States. Army; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869; Weather; Webb, Thomas H. (Thomas Hopkins), 1801-1866

Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear Brother"
Author: Anderson, J. G.
Date: August 23, 1857

Writing to his brother from Barnesville (Bourbon County) on August 28, 1857, Jeremiah Goldsmith Anderson, a native of Indiana and follower of James Montgomery in southeast Kansas, described a variety of mundane matters regarding conditions in Kansas, including land claims and the construction of a steam sawmill on the river.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; County seats; Crops; Farmers; Free state settlers; Missouri; Proslavery settlers; Sawmills; Sickness (see Illness); Timber claim

Letter, S. [Samuel] Cabot Jr. to J. [James] B. Abbott Esq
Author: Cabot, Samuel
Date: August 25, 1857

Samuel Cabot, a member of the New England Aid Society Executive Committee, wrote to James Abbott about his upcoming trip to St. Louis, in which Abbott would claim some stolen rifles on the behalf of Cabot. Cabot included another letter to St. Louis attorneys Knox and Kellogg, which named Abbott as his official agent in the matter. Cabot recounted that "Highwaymen" of Lexington, Missouri, had stolen the rifles the previous spring.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Border disputes and warfare; Cabot, Samuel; Guns; St. Louis, Missouri

Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to Gen. J. H. Lane
Author: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: September 7, 1857

James Abbott, wrote from his travels in Hartford, Connecticut, to James Lane, General of the Kansas free state militia. Abbott was attempting to raise money and supplies for the free state cause by soliciting donations from supporters in the East. However, he reported that "this season of the year is always unfavorable for all benevolent enterprises" and that the "bank and brokers panic" was making matters even more difficult. Abbott longed for "one more big fight in Kansas" even if it should cost him his life or the lives of others as "the object is worth all it will cost."

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Economic conditions; Finance; Free state cause; Free state perspective; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866

Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. J. B. Abbott
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: October 15, 1857

James Lane ordered James Abbott to gather his brigade and have them in Lecompton by the following Monday. Lane perhaps responded to the results of the early October election of the Territorial Legislature, in which free state men questioned the validity of votes cast by U.S. troops, or to the meeting of the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, which would reconvene on October 20.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Militia

Letter, J. [James] H. Lane to Dr Sir [John Brown]
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: October 30, 1857

On October 30, 1857, from Falls City [Nebraska Territory ? ], Jim Lane wrote to urge Brown to do all he could "to get the guns to Kansas." He actually believed they would probably not be needed, but "One thing is certain if they are to do her any good it will be in the next few days."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Guns; Jayhawkers; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Weapons (see also Guns)

Letter, Knox & Kellogg to Jas. B. Abbott
Author: No authors specified.
Date: November 16, 1857

Attorneys Knox & Kellogg wrote from St. Louis to James Abbott in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, responding to a lawsuit brought against them by Samuel Cabot. Cabot held them responsible for the long delay in returning several rifles that had been stolen from him the previous spring by Missouri "Highwaymen." Knox and Kellogg reported to Abbott, acting as agent for Cabot, that the lawsuit had been dismissed and the damage to the rifles was to be appraised by a third party.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Cabot, Samuel; Guns; Knox & Kellogg, Attorneys; Lawsuits; St. Louis, Missouri

Joseph Pomeroy Root, Wyandotte City, KT to William Hutchinson
Author: Root, Joseph Pomeroy
Date: November 17, 1857

Root described seeing Governor Robert J. Walker on a steamer as he left Kansas Territory for Washington. He speculated that Walker's administration was in jeopardy. Root made other comments that reflected the negative view of Free State party members towards pro-slavery Democrats in Kansas.

Keywords: Calhoun, John; Free State Party; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Root, Joseph P., 1826-1885; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Author: Miller, Josiah
Date: December 2, 1857

Josiah Miller wrote from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, to his Father and Mother, in Sparta, Illinois. Miller spoke of political unrest surrounding the existence of both the Lecompton Constitution and the Topeka Constitution. He demanded that judges in the territory have the power to arrest border ruffians, who "were responsible for everything to do with the Lecompton Constitution." Miller also expressed his concern over a letter he had received from a relative, concerning the manner in which he himself was handling the family's financial investments in the Territory.

Keywords: Banks and banking; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Free State Party; Gold mines and mining; Land claims; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Miller, Josiah; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Walker, Robert J. (Robert John), 1801-1869

Letter, J. H. Lane to Genl. A. W. Philips
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 17, 1857

James Lane, Major General of the free state militia forces, wrote to General A. W. Philips, ordering him to Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to help "our friends who are there. . .defending themselves against an invading force."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Free state cause; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Philips, A.W.; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory

Letter, Your affectionate Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: December 21, 1857

Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego, in addition to elaborating on hunting and mill work, described at length the skirmishing between local free state and proslavery men, which had been continuous throughout the summer and fall. He reported the manner in which Missourians had seized and occupied lands in the absence of their owners, who were free state men. "Bogus courts" had brought the free state men who defended their lands to court, which resulted in so many fees owed that the men had to sell their land to pay them; the new owners were usually Missourians. Trego accused proslavery supporters of fabricating stories about destruction caused by warring Abolitionists in order to draw the support of the U.S. troops. Controversy over the Lecompton Constitution flourished in free state circles; the Free State Legislature in Topeka had repealed the "bogus laws" of the Territorial Legislature and appointed James Lane the head of a free state militia.

Keywords: Bogus laws; Bogus legislature; Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Free state legislature; Free state militia; Hunting; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton Constitution; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Military; Mills and mill-work; Missourians; Proslavery supporters; Sharps rifles; Skirmishing; Stanton, Frederick Perry, 1814-1894; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Jas. B. Abbott to My Dear Wife
Author: Abbott, James Burnett
Date: December 22, 1857

James Abbott, serving as a Colonel in the Kansas free state militia wrote from a military skirmish in Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife back in Lawrence. He had hoped to return home within a week from his departure, but now received word from James Lane, Major General of the militia, that he could start home the following Saturday. Abbott reported the events of the skirmish, which thus far had only resulted in the arrests of some men; no deaths had been reported.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Abbott, Mrs. James Burnett; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory

Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear Sister"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: December 27, 1857

On December 27 (or perhaps 29), Kagi wrote this letter to his sister from Springdale, Iowa, in the midst of "a very long & tedious journey." He informed her that his party would leave on the "cars" for Chicago soon, but cautioned her "not for your life" to tell anyone where he was or what he was about, and told her that he would soon be taking an assumed name. [According to historian Stephen Oates, To Purge This Land With Blood, John Brown returned to Kansas in November 1857 and enlisted Kagi and a few others in a new company, which set out in early December for Ohio and some additional training in preparation for Brown's planned assault on the Slave Power in Virginia; on the way, around numerous campfires, Brown apparently encouraged and instructed his young recruits on the just nature of their cause, etc. As it turned out, the company wintered at Springdale while Brown went alone to Ohio.]

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Chicago, Illinois; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Iowa; Kagi, John Henry

Kansas Experience of William Beh
Author: Hyatt, Thaddeus
Date: c. 1857

This testimony, presumably from the Journal of Investigations in Kansas, was most likely recorded on paper by Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. This particular testimony is a very brief account of William Beh's experiences during the turbulent times of 1856 and 1857. It includes information about his claim on the south fork of Pottawatomie Creek and his involvement in the militia as a member of Capt. Samuel Anderson's company. He also requests aid, because he has been sick for three or four months.

Keywords: Anderson County, Kansas Territory; Anderson, Samuel; Beh, William; Border disputes and warfare; Free state militia; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory

Letter, Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: January 9, 1858

Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, in Illinois. Trego reported that the mill was finally up and running, leaving them to occupy themselves with housekeeping and construction of outbuildings near the mill; he had decided to delay building a new home for his family until the spring. Trego responded to his wife's concerns about free state and proslavery skirmishing in the area, conveying his confidence that "truly there is no probability of the people here at Sugar Mound being molested" by them.

Keywords: Construction; Daily life; Domestics; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Skirmishing; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Your devoted Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: January 24, 1858

Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego described how, since the shelter being built around the mill equipment was not yet complete, the wind and rain interfered with their ability to work. Though the work was hard, he favored the milling business over other means toward income. Trego responded to a newspaper article from the Rock Island Advertiser that his wife had sent him, deeming their coverage of the Kansas troubles "sensational." He expected that Fort Scott would soon be destroyed by free state militiamen, as "Bourbon County Bandits" (proslavery supporters) had been harassing extensively free state supporters in the area. Despite all this disorder, the development prospects of Mound City, in Linn County, appeared favorable.

Keywords: Border ruffians; Business enterprises; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Neosho, Kansas Territory; Newspapers; Postal service; Proslavery activities; Railroads; Rock Island Advertiser; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Telegraph; Town development; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; Weather

Letter, Josiah Miller to Dear Father and Mother
Author: Miller, Josiah
Date: February 11, 1858

Josiah Miller, serving as Probate Judge for Douglas County, wrote to his Father and Mother in Illinois. He offered them more advice as to their financial investments in Kansas and their journey to the Territory. Miller commented that, even though the laws put in place by the bogus legislature had been repealed, it was "hard to tell whose laws are in force." He also voiced his support for a bill which would make accepting a position under the Lecompton Constitution a felony punishable by death.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Finance; Judges; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lecompton Constitution; Miller, Josiah; Travel

Letter, Your loving husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: February 11, 1858

Joseph Trego wrote from Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego responded emotionally to his wife's proposition that she would travel East in the spring to visit friends and come to the Territory in the fall, instead of the coming spring as previously planned; he conveyed great disappointment, but insisted that she go if she really wanted to. According to Trego, the structure that would shelter his mill would be raised the next day, and Fort Scott had been seized peacefully be free state men "as the villains fled to save their bacon." He doubted that the treaty drawn there would change the antagonistic conduct of the opposing sides.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border ruffians; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state perspective; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington

Letter, Husband [Joseph H. Trego] to My Dear wife [Alice Trego]
Author: Trego, Joseph Harrington
Date: February 28, 1858

Joseph Trego wrote from Mound City, Kansas Territory, to his wife, Alice, at their family's home in Illinois. Trego described his overland travels to an Osage Indian trading post and his encounters with the Osage people. He and his friend, Edwin, traveled through Fort Scott, Bourbon County, on their way back to Sugar Mound; Trego recounted their tour of the town, with large homes, a Plaza at the town's center, and a steam mill much like his own. Trego reported that, if they had stayed longer in Fort Scott, they may not have been allowed out, as free state men were collecting in large numbers to capture proslavery "thieves" and destroy the town in the process.

Keywords: Animals; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Indian lands; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory; Mills and mill-work; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Osage Indians; Real estate investment; Steam power; Sugar Mound, Kansas Territory; Trading posts; Travel; Trego, Alice; Trego, Joseph Harrington; United States. Army

Letter, Maurice Maitland [J. H. Kagi] to "My Dear Sister"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: March 5, 1858

On his 23rd birthday, March 5, 1858, Kagi (now alias "Maurice Maitland") wrote a very circumspect letter from Springdale, Iowa, expressing his satisfaction with "the present plitical prospects"--"Every thing is working just to suit me--nothing could suit me better"--and his interest in knowing "what you have learned about J. H." (presumably, himself, J.H. Kagi).

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Springdale, Iowa

Letter, Wm. R. Griffith to Col. [James] Abbott
Author: Griffith, William Riley
Date: April 26, 1858

William R. Griffith wrote to James Abbott, Colonel in the Kansas free state militia, informing him that General Eldrige had 40 carbines in his possession. Eldrige was willing to give them to the free state forces, as long as delivery charges were paid by the recipient. Griffith offered to receive the carbines and pay the charges if Abbott himself would retrieve them from Griffith in Little Osage.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Eldridge, Shalor Winchell, 1816-1899; Free state cause; Free state militia; Griffith, William Riley; Guns; Little Osage River, Kansas Territory

Augustus Wattles, Fort Scott, Kansas Territory to William Hutchinson
Author: Wattles, Augustus
Date: April 28, 1858

Wattles described violence in the southern portion of Kansas Territory shortly before the Marais des Cygnes massacre.

Keywords: Free state activities; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Marmaton, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Proslavery activities; Wattles, Augustus

Letter, Knox & Kellogg, Attys to Jas. B. Abbott, Esq.
Author: No authors specified.
Date: July 17, 1858

St. Louis attorneys Knox & Kellogg responded to an inquiry from James Abbott, informing him that they had been in communication with M. F. Conway, by request of Samuel Cabot, and had told him that, once received, they would hold the rifles subject to Cabot's order. The attorneys stated they had done all they could since they had not heard word further from Cabot nor could they predict when they themselves would receive the rifle shipment. Cabot had made several attempts to recover rifles that were stolen from him by Missouri "Highwaymen" in the spring of 1857.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Cabot, Samuel; Conway, Martin Franklin; Guns; Knox & Kellogg, Attorneys; Lawsuits; St. Louis, Missouri

Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, father and others"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: August 13, 1858

By June 28, 1858, J. H. Kagi was back in K.T. at Lawrence, and on August 13 he was writing the family from Moneka, Linn County, where he had "been very busily engaged in fortifying along the State line to prevent further inroads from Missouri." [See J.B. letter of August 3 to Wm. Hutchinson in which he speaks of building the fort on the site of the Marie des Cygnes Massacre.] In an unusually open and frank few lines, Kagi wrote: "C. W. Moffet and two of the other boys (whom you have not seen) are in Ashtabula Co., Ohio. Some have gone to Harpers Ferry. We are all ready and in good spirits. Things are working rightly, here, and brightening elsewhere for our final work. Those who once thought us the most foolish, now think most cheerfully of the whole plan." He closed by asking that they write him at the "Whitney House" in Lawrence.

Keywords: Ashtabula County, Ohio; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moffett, Charles; Moneka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister, and Father"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: September 23, 1858

From Lawrence, Kagi wrote that he had spent several weeks at Osawatomie caring for "Old B." [John Brown], who had "now quite recovered." Things were hard right then, but Kagi was confident that "better times [were] dawning" and that his reward would certainly come "in the end," since "the success of [their] great cause" was "drawing very near." "Few of my age have toiled harder or suffered more in this cause than I, and yet I regret nothing that I have done; nor am I in any discouraged at the future."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Health; Kagi, John Henry; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Sickness (see Illness); Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus

Letter, S.C.S [Samuel C. Smith] to Dear Doctor [C. Robinson]
Author: Smith, Samuel C.
Date: December 29, 1858

In this letter from Lawrence, December 29, 1858, Smith mentions a few business matters (e.g., the railroad convention) but concentrates on the border conflict, with specific criticism leveled at John Brown and James Montgomery. "Captains Brown & Montgomery continue their 'reign of terror' in Linn and Bourbon counties. . . ."

Keywords: African Americans; Bleeding Kansas; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Democratic Party (U.S.); Denver, James William, 1817-1892; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Medary, S. (Samuel), 1801-1864; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Newspapers; Quindaro, Kansas Territory; Railroad conventions; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Smith, Samuel C.

Letter, William Hutchinson to "Dear Helen"
Author: Hutchinson, William , 1823-1904
Date: January 3, 1859

A resident of Lawrence and correspondent from the New York Tribune, William Hutchinson wrote his wife Helen from Mapleton, northern Bourbon County, right after the first of the year, 1859, to tell her about "the wars" in the southern part of the territory and about the activities of "Old" John Brown and his followers. Hutchinson met with the "war council," as well as with James Montgomery, advised against "rash measures," and, with Montgomery, participated in a large meeting of the citizens "to devise a plan for peace." (A note on the back of page 4, by R.J. Hinton, reads, "Copied by my wife from original. Interesting." A good number of the documents in this folder are copies--mostly handwritten.)

Keywords: Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Hamilton, Charles A.; Hutchinson, William, 1823-1904; Jayhawking; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Missouri; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Paola, Kansas Territory; Proslavery settlers; Trading Post, Kansas Territory; Wattles, Augustus

Letter, J. G. Anderson to "Dear brother," J. Q. Anderson
Author: Anderson, J. G.
Date: January 14, 1859

From near Lawrence, Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote about his recent call "into the service," whick took him to Fort Scott and into Missouri with "Old [John] Brown as they call him," where they liberate "ten slaves." Anderson provides some interesting details of their current action and journey, and he observed: "Brown has drawn a paralel [sic] which will be published in the Tribune."

Keywords: Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Jayhawking; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Rice, Benjamin; Slaves; Underground railroad

Letter, Frank Walker to M. B. Walker
Author: Walker, Frank
Date: March 4, 1859

Frank Walker of Mound City, Kansas Territory, wrote to Mr. B. Walker (from the context, presumably a brother) recounting recent skirmishes between the free state men led by James Montgomery and the pro-slavery "scamps" in Bourbon and Linn counties. Walker dubbed Montgomery one of "the likedest man in Kanzas," though at the time, in pro-slavery Linn County, he was considered an outlaw. Walker's letter included references to an incident occurring on Dec 16, 1858 in Fort Scott, in which Montgomery and his men attacked a pro-slavery prison to save a fellow free state man. Walker concluded by encouraging his family to obtain a land warrant in Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state perspective; Guns; Land acquisition; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Walker, Frank; Walker, M.B.; Weapons (see also Guns); Wounds and injuries

Letter, Sam F. Tappan to Dear Friend [Thomas W. Higginson]
Author: Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913
Date: April 17, 1859

In this letter, Samuel Tappan continued to keep Thomas Higginson of Worcester, Massachusetts apprised of the current situation in Kansas Territory. He mentioned such topics as the Pike's Peak gold rush and the affairs of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, stating his belief that Robinson and Pomeroy were innocent of any charges of speculation. He praised John Brown's work to free slaves and the work of the Doy family in that same endeavor. However, he did not agree with Charles Robinson, who too readily looked to the interests of the Republican Party instead of supporting John Brown's work in the territory. Tappan appreciated the Atlantic Monthly magazine and Higginson's contributions to it.

Keywords: African Americans; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Doy, John; Free state perspective; Fugitive slaves; Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911; Kansas City, Kansas Territory; Land speculation; Pikes Peak gold rush; Pomeroy, S. C. (Samuel Clarke), 1816-1891; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Slaves; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913

Letter, Frank Walker to Dear Brother
Author: Walker, Frank
Date: May 23, 1859

This is part of a series of letters from Frank Walker written in Mound City, Linn County, Kansas Territory. The letter implied that Walker was part of a free state militia group and indicated that the free state men never stole things. He wrote that the proslavery men took their horses. He mentioned a meeting of the Republican Party and that Horace Greeley gave a speech.

Keywords: Free state militia; Free state perspective; Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Walker, Frank

Letter, Kagi to "My Dear Sister"
Author: Kagi, John Henry
Date: June 8, 1859

From Cleveland, Ohio, Kagi jokingly wrote his sister that in the absence of any letters from the family, he had feared they had set off for "Pikes Peak, and had died of suffering on the route, as others have." Kagi expected to leave in order to take up his "business in earnest" shortly--that is, to implement Brown's plan and move on Harpers Ferry.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Crops; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Kagi, John Henry; Pikes Peak gold rush; Weather

Letter, "C. Whipple [A.D. Stevens] to "Jenny" [Dunbar]
Author: Stevens, Aaron D.
Date: October 7, 1859

The last of three "love letters" written by Aaron D. Stevens, alias Charles Whipple, to a girl he apparently had only recently met but with whom he desperately desired a closer relationship was dated October 7, 1859, "near Harper's Ferry." (He had been writing for at least a month and had not received a letter from her.) Stevens rode with John Brown in Kansas, participated in the Harpers Ferry raid on October 18, 1859, and died on the Charlestown gallows in the spring of 1860.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Jayhawkers

Letter, F. M. Cummins to S. N. Wood
Author: Cummins, F. M.
Date: November 13, 1859

Writing from El Mendaro, Madison County, K. T., F. M. Cummins speculated about Wood's November 8, 1859, election defeat. (Interestingly, when the territorial legislature convened in January 1860, Wood and not his Democratic opponent, T. S. Huffaker, represented the 23rd District.) In a faded letter, Cummins wrote that "the ill timed article in your [Wood's] issue of Oct 31st [the Kansas Press, Council Grove] on Jim Lane pretty effectively "cooked" your prospects in Madison County. . . ." Cummins went on to mention Wood's candidacy for the state senate (election of December 6, the first under the Wyandotte Constitution) and wrote: "Being a Lane man myself and knowing your opposition to him I cannot wish you success. . . ."

Keywords: Council Grove, Kansas Territory; Cummins, F. M.; Democratic Party (U.S.); El Mendaro, Kansas Territory; Election, Territorial Legislature, November 1859; Factionalism; Huffaker, T. S.; Kansas Press; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lyon County, Kansas (see also Breckinridge County, Kansas Territory); Madison County, Kansas Territory; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt); Wyandotte Constitution

Letter, James Hanway to R. J. Hinton
Author: Hanway, James
Date: December 5, 1859

In response to the Redpath/Hinton notice in the Lawrence Republican, Hanway wrote from his home in Shermansville, Franklin County, to share his story about "our friend John Brown," and he hoped their efforts would convey to all Brown's "the character" and "motives" and "place him in his true light before the world." Hanway highlights the attempted "rescue of Lawrence" in May 1856; the subsequent "'Tragedy'" on Pottawatomie Creek, about which Brown personal told Hanaway, "it was a just act, to take the lives of those 5 pro-slave ruffians"; how John Brown was a surveyor who used his profession to gather intellegence among proslavery settlers; the fact, according to Hanway, that the Doyles and others were actively engaged in efforts to run free state settlers out of the area; and specifically denies the story that Frederick Brown was "insane."

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Free state cause; Hanway, James; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lawrence Republican; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas Territory; Pottawatomie Massacre, May 1856; Proslavery settlers; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sack of Lawrence, May 1856; Shermansville, Kansas Territory; Slave power; Surveyors

Letter, C. G. Allen to Redpath and Hinton
Author: Allen, C. G.
Date: December 1859

Allen, a "minister of the Gospel" at Cottonwood Falls, K.T., wrote in response to the Redpath/Hinton call for "anecdotes & reminiscences" concerning "the brave & philanthropic [John] Brown," who the preacher first met in Lawrence in 1856. Allen left Lawrence when a call came for volunteers to aid in the defense of Osawatomie in August of that year and while there engaged saw his first "Border Ruffians," who he described as "miserable specimens of humanity. They were ragged & dirty. Their cloths & faces were to a considerable extent covered with tobacco spit." Allen and the men he was with actually missed the Battle of Osawatomie by moving south before the attack in an effort to find the attackers before they reached the town.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Border ruffians; Brown, Frederick; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free state militia; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Missouri; Osawatomie, Battle of; Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Proslavery supporters; Redpath, James, 1833-1891; Sharps rifles; Stanton, Kansas Territory

Letter, Paul Shepherd to James Redpath
Author: Shepherd, Paul
Date: January 3, 1860

From Dover, Michigan, Paul Shepherd--formerly of Kansas Territory--wrote Redpath to pass along "some useful information, in repect to John H. Kagi." Of most interest, perhaps is Shepherd's account of the "shoot out" at Tecumseh between Kagi and Judge Rush Elmore, who Kagi had accused of "being a prime mover in the murderous attack upon him" at Lecompton in mid-January 1857.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Border ruffians; Cato, Sterling G.; Courts; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Free state militia; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Moffett, Charles; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery perspective; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Legislature (see Free state legislature); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Violence

Letter, Harrison Anderson to R. J. Hinton
Author: Anderson, Harrison
Date: January 27, 1860

The elder brother of Harpers Ferry raider Jeremiah G. Anderson wrote Hinton to provide information on his brothers activities in Kansas Territory, beginning in "June or July 1857," when he settle in norther Bourbon County. J.G. Anderson was actively engaged in free-state activities in southern Kansas, including efforts to defy the bogus authority through the establishment of what was called a "Squaters court." (According to a January 29, 1860, letter--also in this folder--from another brother, John Q. Anderson of Eddyville, Iowa, brother Harrison was still living in at Little Osage, KT, and he had "frequently entertained" John Brown.)

Keywords: Abolitionists; Anderson, Jeremiah G.; Bogus laws; Border disputes and warfare; Bourbon County, Kansas Territory; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Fort Scott, Kansas Territory; Free State Party; Free state cause; Free state settlers; Hinton, Richard Josiah; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Proslavery activities; Squatters

Essay, Sketch of J. H. Kagi by E. R. Moffet
Author: Moffet, E. R.
Date: March 4, 1860

Apparently written for Redpath and Hinton on March 4, 1860, this handwritten sketch of John H. Kagi is the reflection of long-time acquaintance E. R. Moffet, then of Davenport, Iowa. Moffet knew Kagi from the time the latter was two years old and became reacquainted with him in Kansas Territory. They spent time in "prison" together in October 1856, and in this somewhat odd manuscript, Moffet recreates some "Prison Scenesor Dialogue" and subsequently includes some correspondence from Kagi. Moffet recounts Kagi's second arrest, bail, and March 1857 altercation with Rush Elmore at Tecumseh.

Keywords: Bogus legislature; Elmore, Rush; Free state cause; Geary, John White, 1819-1873; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Lecompton; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; National Era; Newspapers - Free State; Proslavery activities; Tecumseh, Kansas Territory; Topeka Tribune; Violence

Letter, John Ritchey to "Friend Stevens" [A.D. Stevens]
Author: Ritchie, John , 1817-1887
Date: March 7, 1860

Topeka's "John Ritchey" [Ritchie] wrote this letter dated March 7, 1860, to A. D. Stevens from Franklin, Indiana, where he had "been spending the winter with his family." Although Ritchey mentioned John Brown and his own fervent views in opposition to "Slavery," the focus of his brief comments to his former Kansas comrade, who was scheduled to die on the Charlestown gallows on March 17, were an expression of concern for Steven's eternal soul: "I can see but one way left for me to be of any service to you and that is to direct your mind to the Savior. 'Ye must be born again.'"

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Charles Town, Virginia; Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Religion; Ritchie, John, 1817-1887; Slavery; Stevens, Aaron Dwight (see also Whipple, Charles); Topeka boys; Topeka, Kansas Territory

Letter, Caleb S. Pratt to George L. Stearns
Author: Pratt, Caleb S.
Date: May 30, 1860

Pratt, who seemed to have been acting as Stearns' agent in Lawrence at this time, wrote regarding the Joseph Gardner request for firearms. On his own initiative, Pratt "allowed him [Gardner] to take 7 Rifles and 4 sabres to his house with permission to use the same if necessary . . ." This was a temporary loan that awaited Stearns' endorsement.

Keywords: Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Massachusetts State Kansas Committee; Pratt, Caleb S.; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867

Letter, Joseph Gardner to George L. Stearns
Author: Gardner, Joseph
Date: June 9, 1860

From Lawrence, Kansas, Joseph Gardner described one of the last battles of the border war. The attack Gardner had feared came "last night between 12 & 1." With the arms Stearns had made available, the attackers were repulsed, but "one of my [Gardner's] colored men, who had fought most nobly," took "a tremendous charge of buck shot" and died. His last words were "fight, fight hard!!"

Keywords: African Americans; Battles; Border ruffians; Clinton, Kansas Territory; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Firearms; Fugitive slaves; Gardner, Joseph; Guns; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; Washington Creek, Kansas Territory

Letter, Dr. C. R. Jennison to Dear friend [George L. Stearns]
Author: Jennison, Charles Rainsford, 1834-1884
Date: November 28, 1860

From Mound City, Jennison opened his letter to Stearns by acknowledging that the two men did not know each other but Jennison counted Stearns "a true friend to the cause of freedom." Jennison told him about the so-called "desperadoes known as Kidnapers" who had been active in the region. After warning them of serious consequences if caught and convicted of "man hunting," Jennison's free state force captured, tried, and hung one Russ Hinds. Despite the threat from Gen. William S. Harney's federal troops, Jennison insisted "we are detirmined to Stand or fall by our weight for we have taken our position and it is honorable and Just." Federal troops were unfairly targeting free staters and ignoring proslave outrages.

Keywords: Beebe, George Monroe; Free state cause; Fugitive slaves; Hamelton, Charles A.; Harney, William S.; Hinds, Russell; Jennison, Charles Ransford, 1834-1884; Kidnapping; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Marais des Cygnes Massacre; Mound City, Kansas Territory; Proslavery activities; Stearns, Geo. L. (George Luther), 1809-1867; United States. Army

Letter, Augustus Wattles to Dear [Thaddeus] Hyatt
Author: Wattles, Augustus
Date: December 3, 1860

This letter, written from New York by Augustus Wattles, was addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. The main focus of the letter was on two proslavery men--Captain Doake and General Clark--who persisted in mistreating free state settlers along the Missouri-Kansas border. The letter also referred to Charles Jennison and to James Montgomery, whose band of free state militiamen was still active even into 1860. Wattles vehemently maintained that free state forces were only organizing for their own protection, not for a great insurrection as the Missourians believed.

Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Border disputes and warfare; Clarke, George W.; Doak, William H.; Hyatt, Thaddeus; Land sales; Missourians; Montgomery, James, 1814-1871; Wattles, Augustus

Letter, [Jim] Lane to [M. W.] Delahay
Author: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: December 18, 1860

Writing on "Christian & Lane" attorneys letterhead, Jim Lane (at least it certainly appeared to be Lane) informed Delahay in a "Strictly confidential" letter of his plan to help John Speer, Lawrence editor and "faithful friend," take control of the Republican, another Lawrence newspaper. To do so he needed to raise $500, but the political payoff would be worth the effort." Lane felt control of the Republican, Times [Leavenworth] & Record [Topeka] would lead to success for the free state cause.

Keywords: Delahay, Mark W.; Free state cause; Kansas State Record; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence Republican; Leavenworth Times; Newspapers; Republican Party (U.S.: 1854- ); Speer, John, 1817-1906

Photograph, Samuel Newitt Wood
Author: Leonard & Martin, artists
Date:

Samuel Newitt Wood was an active participant on behalf of the free state cause. He served in the territorial legislature and was a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was also involved in some of the armed conflicts. He settled in Chase County, Kansas Territory.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Chase County, Kansas Territory; Constitutions; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitution; Leonard & Martin, artists; Photographs and Illustrations; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Photograph, James Hanway
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

James Hanway was active in free state activities. He was a friend of John Brown and served in John Brown, Jr.'s militia company. He was a delegate to the Wyandotte Constitutional convention.

Keywords: Brown, John, 1800-1859; Brown, John, Jr.; Hanway, James; Photographs and Illustrations; Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, July 1859

Reminiscence, Branson rescue
Author: No authors specified.
Date: unknown

James Abbott, a free state activist who participated in several Territorial conflicts, including the rescues of John Doy and Jacob Branson, chronicled his account of the rescue of Jacob Branson by handwritten manuscript or personal interview, here presented as a typed transcript. Sheriff Jones, supported by the proslavery "bogus" legislature, had arrested Jacob Branson, a free state man who witnessed the murder of Dow. Abbott and his cohorts endeavored to rescue him, and were successful, though their actions were controversial even among fellow free state supporters.Certain aspects of Abbott's account of these events, however, are in contention with an earlier account by Samuel Wood; Abbott actively addressed these discrepancies in this document.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Big Springs Convention; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Dixon, Howard; Dow, Charles W.; Free state militia; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Land claim disputes; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Lock, Fred; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Saunders, Henry F.; Smith, Samuel C.; Tappan, S. F. (Samuel Forster), d. 1913; Wood, S. N. (Samuel Newitt)

Photograph, Augustus Wattles
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

Augustus Wattles was an abolitionist who came to Kansas from Ohio in 1855. For a time he helped George Washington Brown publish the Herald of Freedom in Lawrence. In 1857, he was one of the founders of Moneka, Linn County, Kansas Territory. He was a supporter of John Brown and Brown stayed at his home several times after the Marais des Cygnes massacre. Wattles served in the territorial legislature in 1855.

Keywords: Abolitionists; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Linn County, Kansas Territory; Moneka, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Wattles, Augustus

Photograph, James B. Abbott
Author: Downing, George
Date:

James B. Abbott was involved in various free state activities and in some of the territorial conflicts. He acquired the so-called "abbott howitzer" in Kansas City and participated in the rescues of both John Doy and Jacob Branson. He was involved in the Battle of Black Jack and was acquainted with John Brown. He lived in Desoto.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Branson rescue (1855); Cabinet photographs; Doy rescue and trial, 1859; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations

Photograph, Samuel J. Reader
Author: No authors specified.
Date: 1854

Samuel J. Reader was a participant in some of the free state activities. He wrote about his efforts in his diary, including descriptions of the Battles of Indianola and Hickory Point. He also used the diary as the basis for an autobiography which he illustrated with drawings and water colors. He lived in Shawnee County, Kansas Territory. His accounts also describe daily life. Samuel J. Reader copied this photograph from a daguerreotype taken at La Harpe, Hancock County, IL, March 1, 1854. He was 18 years old.

Keywords: Free state supporters; Indianola, Battle of; Indianola, Kansas Territory; Militia; Photographs and Illustrations; Reader, Samuel James; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory

Photograph, W. W. Updegraff
Author: Siewert
Date:

W. W. Updegraff was involved in territorial politics. He served as the last president of the Territorial Council and as the first speaker of the Kansas House of Representatives. He was a physician who located in Osawatomie, Lykins County, Kansas Territory. He was a free state supporter.

Keywords: Card photographs; Kansas Territory. Council; Kansas. Legislature; Lykins County, Kansas Territory (see also Miami County, Kansas); Miami County, Kansas (see also Lykins County, Kansas Territory); Osawatomie, Kansas Territory; Photographs and Illustrations; Siewert; Updegraff, W. W.

Photograph, John E. Stewart
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

John E. Stewart was a free state supporter and was active in a number of the territorial confrontations between free state supporters and proslavery supporters. He also helped slaves to escape on the Underground Railroad. Stewart was listed on the Free State ticket as running for the Territorial House of Representatives for Douglas County in May 1858.

Keywords: Cartes de visite; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Elections; Free state activities; Free state supporters; Photographs and Illustrations; Stewart, John E.

Photograph, William Frederick Milton Arny
Author: No authors specified.
Date:

W. F. M. Arny was active in numerous territorial Kansas activities, serving as a general agent for the National Kansas Committee and as a delegate to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. He was a member of the 1858 territorial legislature and the Topeka legislature.

Keywords: Arny, W. F. M. (William Frederick Milton), 1813-1881; Free state supporters; Kansas Territory. Legislature; Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, March-April 1858; National Kansas Committee; Photographs and Illustrations

Experience of John E. Stewart
Author: Stewart, John E.
Date: c. 1856?

This undated document, presumably written by John E. Stewart, relates the author's experiences in Kansas Territory. The reminiscence begins with a description of how he entered the territory and the manner in which he constructed a house. Then, intermixed with accounts of his agricultural efforts and other day-to-day activities, there are brief mentions of the political situation in the territory. The main focus of the document then turns to when Stewart was a member of the Wakarusa Liberty Guard, including a description of the murder of Charles Dow, the murder of Hoyt, the Branson rescue, and other encounters with border ruffians.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Agriculture; Border disputes and warfare; Branson rescue (1855); Branson, Jacob; Coleman, Franklin M.; Construction; Dow, Charles W.; Elections; Emigration and immigration; Free state activities; Free state militia; House furnishings; Houses; Hoyt, David Starr; Jones, Samuel J. (Sheriff); Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Missourians; Osawatomie, Battle of; Skirmishing; Stewart, John E.; Titus, Henry Theodore

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Letter, James [Griffing] to My Dear Augusta [J. Augusta Goodrich]
Authors: Griffing, James Sayre
Date:  August 29, 1855
James Griffing wrote from the steamboat New Lucy on the Missouri River to his fiancee J. Augusta Goodrich in Owego, New York. Griffing, a Methodist minister, was on his way back to New York to get married. He commented upon the concerns that Ms. Goodrich likely was experiencing as she prepared to leave her New York home to join him in Kansas Territory. Griffing tried to convince his fiancee that they would make a good home for themselves in Kansas. He also expressed the opinion that the "excitement upon the slavery question" in Kansas Territory was exaggerated and that serious violence over the issue was unlikely.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Courtship; Griffing, James Sayre; Griffing, Jemima Augusta (Goodrich); Marriage; Propaganda; Transportation; Travel


Abbott Sword
Authors: No authors specified.
Date:  1855
Major James B. Abbott acquired this Model 1840 Noncommissioned Officer's sword in 1855. He carried it through the territorial period.

Keywords: Abbott, James Burnett; Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Militia; Objects; Swords and daggers; Weapons (see also Guns)


Letters, J. H. Lane to "Friends" [Robinson and others] and C. Robinson to "Dear Sir" [J.H. Lane]
Authors: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Robinson, Charles
Date:  August 11, 1856
Copied by R. J. Hinton from his journal in preparation of one of his publications on the Kansas war, the first letter is Jim Lane's offer to rescue the Lecompton prisoners (Robinson, George W. Brown, Gaius Jenkins, et al) and Charles Robinson's reply, suggesting that in light of current congressional activity the plan was ill-advised. Both were dated August 11, 1856.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Border ruffians; Brown, George W. (George Washington), 1820-1915; Brown, John, 1800-1859; Congress (See United States. Congress); Deitzler, George W.; Free state militia; Jenkins, Gaius; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lecompton, Kansas Territory; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Smith, George W.


James Lane Telescope
Authors: No authors specified.
Date:  1855-1857
Spyglass used by James Lane and other free-state leaders of Lawrence in observing the movements of Missourians.

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare; Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Douglas County, Kansas Territory; Free state; Free state activities; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Lawrence, Kansas Territory; Objects


Letter, J. H. Kagi to "My dear sister"
Authors: Kagi, John Henry
Date:  January 4, 185[7]
From Topeka, shortly after the end of his imprisonment, John Kagi wrote his sister in Bristol, Ohio, a mostly personal letter to say he was eager to return for a short visit, but, he wrote, "I love Kansas [???] than ever, and feel more like laboring with my whole soul's strength for the triumph of her rights."

Keywords: Border disputes and warfare - Free state perspective; Kagi, John Henry; Kansas question; Ohio; Topeka Tribune; Topeka, Kansas Territory


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