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Andrews, Horace, Jr. “Kansas Crusade: Eli Thayer and the New England Emigrant Aid Company.” New England Quarterly 35 (December 1962): 497-514. Andrews argued that “without Eli Thayer”—who refused to view Kansas as a lost cause and incorporated the Aid Company a month before the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act—“there might never have been a Kansas crusade.”

Beezley, William H. “Land-Office Spoilsmen in `Bleeding Kansas'.” Great Plains Journal 9 (Spring 1970): 67-78. The article’s focus is mostly directed at John Calhoun, the pro-slave, surveyor general for Kansas and Nebraska.

"Biographies of Members of the Free State Territorial Legislature of 1857.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 204-216. Brief biographical sketches of most members of Council and House of Representatives.

Caldwell, Martha B. “The Eldridge House.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 9 (November 1940): 347-370. From its beginnings as the free-state headquarters in 1854-55, Caldwell offers a history of this Lawrence, Kansas, icon through the construction of the fourth and final hotel building in the 1920s, but her focus is the first decade.

Cecil-Fronsman, Bill. “`Advocate the Freedom of White Men, As Well As That of the Negroes': The Kansas Free State and Antislavery Westerns in Territorial Kansas.” Kansas History 20 (Summer 1997): 102-115. The focus is on editors Robert G. Elliott and Josiah Miller, who substantially contributed to “the successful establishment of the Kansas free-state movement.”

Cecil-Fronsman, Bill. “`Death to all Yankees and Traitors in Kansas': The Squatter Sovereign and the Defense of Slavery in Kansas.” Kansas History 16 (Spring 1993): 22-33. Subsidized by the town company and edited by Kelley and Stringfellow, Atchison's pro-slave newspaper, moderated its tone once the political battle was lost and became Freedom's Champion when John A. Martin took it over in 1858.

Cheatham, Gary L. “‘Kansas Shall Not Have the Right to Legislate Slavery Out’: The Failure of the 1860 Antislavery Law.” Kansas History 23 (Autumn 2000): 154-171. The Republican legislature of 1860 failed in its effort to eradicate the “peculiar institution” in the territory, despite its passage of an antislavery law, as the statute was declared unconstitutional by the territorial District Court at Leavenworth in late December 1860 and unceremoniously became moot with Kansas admission to the Union, January 29, 1861.

Collins, Bruce W. “The Democrats' Electoral Fortunes During the Lecompton Crisis.” Civil War History 24 (December 1978): 314-331. Based on his analysis of election results, Collins argued that historians of the late 1850s had “underestimated the popular support enjoyed by the Democrats in the North even when a Democratic President pursued a pro-Southern policy.”

Connelley, William E. “The East Boundary Line of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 75-80. A map of the Kansas City area companies this discussion of a long-standing dispute between Kansas and Missouri.

Connelley, William E. Kansas Territorial Governors. Topeka, Kans.: Crane & Co., 1900. Brief biographical sketches of the ten men who served the territory as governor and/or acting governor.

Cory, C. E. “Slavery in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collections 7 (1901-1902): 229-242. The legal status of slavery is examined; some individual slave accounts also are provided.

Craik, Elmer LeRoy. “Southern Interest in Territorial Kansas, 1854-1858.” Kansas Historical Collections 15 (1919-1922): 334-450. Craik’s 1922 University of Kansas doctoral dissertation remains an important and useful study of the central issues that made Kansas a battle ground; it reflects a great deal of newspaper research in particular.

Crafton, Allen. Free State Fortress: The First Ten Years of the History of Lawrence, Kansas. Lawrence, Kans.: World Co., 1954. A centennial history by a Lawrence resident, Free State Fortress offers a detailed examination of events in and around Lawrence from September 1854 through September 1864; the absence of citations is unfortunate.

Denver, James W. "Address of Ex-Governor James W. Denver. Delivered at the Old Settlers’ Meeting, Bismarck Grove, Lawrence, September 3, 1884." Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-1885 3 (1886): 359-366. Denver, who was territorial governor from December 1857, to October 1858, here offered a personal account of events of twenty-five years earlier.

"Documentary History of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1891-1896 5 (1896): 156-633. Beginning with biographical sketch of some of the principals, “the papers which here follow . . . are intended to complete the documentary history of Kansas Territory.” Papers from the Reeder, Shannon, and Geary administrations are included, as are “the executive minutes and official papers” of governors Robert J. Walker, James W. Denver, and Samuel Medary.

Doy, John. The Narrative of John Doy, of Lawrence, Kansas. New York: T. Holman, printer, 1860. Dr. Doy, a member of the first Emigrant Aid party to reach Lawrence in August 1854, devoted most of his 130-plus pages to the story of his efforts to help kidnapped or “fugitive” African Americans, his capture and trial and conviction for “negro stealing,” and his subsequent “rescue” from the St. Joseph jail.

Eldridge, Shalor Winchell. Recollections of Early Days in Kansas. Topeka: Publications of the Kansas State Historical Society, Kansas State Printing Plant, 1920. Colonel Eldridge’s “eye-witness” history of the settlement of Lawrence and the territorial struggle for freedom, through the Civil War and Quantrill’s raid.

Elliott, R. G. “The Grasshopper Falls Convention and the Legislature of 1857.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 182-196. Includes an address delivered in December 1907 and his autobiography.

"First Appearance of Kansas at a National Convention.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 12-18. Founded in 1854, the Republican Party held its first national convention in 1956 and its second, the first to include Kansas delegates, at Chicago, 1860.

Fleming, Walter L. “The Buford Expedition to Kansas.” American Historical Review 6 (October 1900): 38-48. One of a very few colonizing efforts made by Southerners; about 400 men, mostly from Alabama and South Carolina, arrived in Kansas on May 2, 1856.

Gardner, Theodore. “Andrew H. Reeder, First Territorial Governor.” Kansas Historical Collections 16 (1923-1925): 582-585. A sketch of Reeder’s brief tenure (1854-1855) and subsequent flight from territory disguised as “wood chopper.”

Geary, John W. “Governor Geary's Administration." Kansas Historical Collection, 1886-1888 4 (1890): 373-745. A biographical sketch of John White Geary is followed by a variety of documents including “President Pierce's Message, 1856,” the “Correspondence of Governor Wilson Shannon,” the “Correspondence of Governor Geary,” the “Executive Minutes of Governor John W. Geary,” and the “Executive Minutes of Daniel Woodson, Acting Governor from March 11, 1857, to March 31, 1857, Inclusive.”

"Governor Andrew H. Reeder.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1875-1878 1-2 (1881): 145-156. Biographical sketch of first territorial governor from Kansas Weekly Herald, September 15, 1854, followed by comments on his years in Kansas by prominent contemporaries.

"Governor George M. Beebe.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1926-1928 17 (1928): 618-623. A biographical sketch of Kansas’ last territorial governor who was just twenty-four years old when he took office.

Greene, Albert R. “United States Land-Offices in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 1-13. Includes a list of officials and a map, “Kansas Territory in 1856.”

Harlow, Ralph Volney. “The Rise and Fall of the Kansas Aid Movement.” American Historical Review 41 (October 1935): 1-25. Harlow dealt with Eli Thayer’s Emigrant Aid Company, as well as the bigger “Kansas Aid Movement,” and concluded that, although they stirred up much bitterness and hate in the North and the South, “the emigrant aid companies and committees had practically nothing to do with making Kansas a free state”—western pioneers did that.

Hickman, Russell K. “The Reeder Administration Inaugurated: Part I, “The Delegate Election of November, 1854." Kansas Historical Quarterly 36 (Autumn 1970): 305-340; Part II, “The Census of Early 1855,” 36 (Winter 1970):424-455. A proslave candidate, John W. Whitfield, was elected first territorial delegate to Congress; part two contains census data preliminary to the first legislative election, March 1855.

Hoole, William Stanley, editor. “A Southerner's Viewpoint of the Kansas Situation, 1856-1857: The Letters of Lieut. Col. A. J. Hoole, C. S. A.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 3 (February 1934): 43-68; concluded 3 (May 1934): 145-171. Letters written to family members in South Carolina; Hoole was politically active during his stay in K.T., serving briefly as probate judge of Douglas County.

Johnson, C. W. “Survey of the Northern Boundary Line of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 318-322. Carried out per instructions of the surveyor-general in 1854 and 1855.

Johnson, Samuel A. The Battle Cry of Freedom: The New England Emigrant Aid Company in the Kansas Crusade. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1954. Johnson’s is a thoroughly documented account of the Company’s “relationship . . . to the Kansas Conflict” and other major and related events of the 1850s.

Johnson, Samuel A. “The Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 1 (November 1932): 429-441. Kansas “historians” had debated the relative significance of the New England Emigrant Aid Company in making Kansas free for years; Johnson concludes that it was of great importance, if not a deciding factor, in the struggle.

Johnson, Samuel A. “The Emigrant Aid Company in the Kansas Conflict.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 6 (February 1937): 21-33. Rumors about the nature and objectives of the New England Emigrant Aid Company “furnished the excuse, and in some measure the provocation, for the Missouri invasion.”

Johnson, Samuel A. “The Genesis of the New England Emigrant Aid Company.” New England Quarterly 3 (January 1930): 95-122. Johnson included a list of directors and stockholders in this examination of the company’s Kansas troubles and controversies.

Kansas State Historical Society. The Old Pawnee Capitol, an account of the first capitol building of Kansas, the town of Pawnee, initial sessions of the first territorial legislature, destruction of the town of Pawnee . . . Topeka, Kans.: B. P. Walker, State Printer, 1928.

"Kansas Territorial Publications.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 394-418. An extensive list of sources produced during the period with name indexes to claims made in the Strickler and Hoogland reports.

Lecompte, Samuel D. “A Defense By Samuel D. Lecompte.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 389-405. First published in Sol Miller's Troy Chief, February 4, 1875; concerning Lecompte’s controversial tenure as chief justice of Kansas territorial court, 1854-1859.

Lowrey, Grosvenoir P. “Biography of Governor Andrew H. Reeder.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-1885 3 (1886): 197-205; 205-223. The biographical sketch was based on information provided by Lowrey, the governor’s private secretary; it is followed by an account of “Governor Reeder's Escape from Kansas,” taken from Reeder's diary.

Malin, James C. “The Pro-Slavery Background of the Kansas Struggle.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 10 (December 1923): 285-305. Most of the published “materials” about this most controversial of incidents, insisted Malin, was “propaganda, pure and simple, even when disguised under the designation of true and impartial history.”

Martin, George W. “Early Days in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-1906 9 (1906): 126-143. Although territorial settlers were “overwhelmingly Middle states and Western people,” New Englanders were the early “bosses.”

Meerse, David E. “The 1857 Territorial Delegate Election Contest.” Kansas History 4 (Summer 1981): 96-113. Meerse examines the highly significant October 1857 balloting, which resulted in the election of a free-state legislature and delegate to Congress, Marcus J. Parrott.

Miller, Nyle H., editor. “Surveying the Southern Boundary Line of Kansas: From the Private Journal of Col. Joseph E. Johnston.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 1 (February 1932): 104-139. Official survey to set dividing line between Kansas and Indian Territory conducted in 1857.

Moore, Ely, Jr. “The Story of Lecompton.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 463-480. the author's father (Ely, Sr.) was the first register at Lecompton's federal land office.

Morrall, Albert. “Dr. Albert Morrall: Proslavery Soldier in Kansas in 1856.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1915-1918 13 (1918): 123-142. Morrall came to Kansas in 1856 with a military company from South Carolina.

O'Connor, Thomas H. “Cotton Whigs in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 26 (Spring 1960): 34-58. “Cotton Whigs” were New Englanders who backed the movement to make Kansas a free state, in part because they were outraged by the Kansas-Nebraska Act’s repeal of the venerated Missouri Compromise, but did not hold to abolitionist principles.

Phillips, William A. The Conquest of Kansas by Missouri and Her Allies: A History of the Troubles in Kansas, from the Passage of the Organic Act Until the Close of July, 1856. 1856. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. Written in 1856, Phillips, a Scottish immigrant who was affiliated with the New York Tribune when he first came to Kansas in 1855, recounted an “early and unhappy history of Kansas.”

Reeder, Andrew H. “Executive Minutes. Minutes Recorded in the Governor’s Office During the Administration of Governor Andrew H. Reeder.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-1885 3 (1886): 226-278. The official records begin with Reeder’s commission, issued June 29, 1854, and continue through the end of his administration, August 16, 1855.

Richmond, Robert W. “The First Capitol of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 21 (Spring 1955): 321-325. This “capitol” was located at Pawnee, near Fort Riley, and was the site of the initial session of the first territorial legislature, July 1855.

Robinson, Charles. “Address of Governor Robinson.” Kansas Historical Collections 1875-1878 1-2 (1881):115-130. The “free-state governor” and state of Kansas’s first chief executive, here offers his “recollections and impressions” of six of ten territorial governors of Kansas.

Rutherford, Phillip R. “The Arabia Incident.” Kansas History, 1(Spring 1978): 39-47. Pro-slavery sympathizers confiscated a cache of Sharps rifles on board this now famous (i.e., Steamboat Arabia museum in Kansas City, Missouri) river steamer in May 1856.

Sanborn, Franklin B. “Some Notes on the Territorial History of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-1914 13 (1914): 249-265. Comments on papers of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a free-state leader, followed by letters of T. J. Marsh, pertaining to territorial election of 1857, and Colonel James Montgomery, the Linn County “Jayhawker.”

Shannon, Wilson. “Executive Minutes. Minutes Recorded in the Governor’s Office During the Administration of Governor Wilson Shannon, Including also those Recorded in the Intervals in which Secretary Daniel Woodson was Acting Governor.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-1885 3 (1886): 283-337. The minutes cover the period August 31, 1855, to September 20, 1856; they are preceded by short “Biography of Governor Wilson Shannon” by B. F. Simpson, pages 279-283.

Shindler, Henry. “The First Capital of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 331-337. Despite designation of Pawnee as first territorial capital, Fort Leavenworth was first seat of government established when Andrew Reeder arrived there in October 1854.

Shoemaker, Floyd C. “Missouri's Proslavery Fight for Kansas.” [Part I] Missouri Historical Review 48 (April 1954): 221-236; [Part II] 48 (July 1954): 325-340; and [Part III] 49 (October 1954): 41-54. Opening his three-part essay on the seminal struggle for Kansas, the author observed that to date “the dearth” of published material by Missouri historians was “almost unbelievable”; a version of this work was first published in the author’s Missouri and Missourians: Land of Contrasts and People of Achievements (1943).

Stanton, Frederick P. “Address at Ex-Governor Frederick P. Stanton. Delivered at the Old Settler's Meeting, Bismarck Grove, Lawrence, September 2, 1884." Kansas Historical Collections 3 (1883-1885): 338-358. Stanton offered an account of his role as secretary and acting governor of the territory, April 1857-December 1857.

Thayer, Eli. A History of the Kansas Crusade, Its Friends and Its Foes. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1889. The author was the principal organizer of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, which he held was the savior of Kansas.

"The Topeka Movement.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-1914 13 (1914): 125-249. Reprints many documents, speeches, and official records of this free-state movement, 1855-1857.

Ware, Abby Huntington. “Dispersion of the Territorial Legislature of 1856.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-1906 9 (1906): 540-545. U.S. army dispersed “illegal” free-state legislature meeting at Topeka; includes an article written by James Redpath for the Chicago Tribune, July 4, 1856.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

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