Settlement and Development
Abbott, Francis A. “Some Reminiscences of Early Days on Deep Creek, Riley County.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 392-396. The author removed from cotton mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1855.
Barry, Louise. "The Emigrant Aid Company Parties of 1854." Kansas Historical Quarterly 12 (May 1943): 115-155. Information on six groups of settlers backed by New England company; parties that came under company auspices in 1855 covered in August issue (12:227-268).
Barry, Louise, editor. “Scenes in (And En Route To) Kansas Territory, Autumn, 1854: Five Letter by Wm. H. Hutter.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 35 (Autumn 1969): 312-336. Hutter, the editor of Easton, Pennsylvania, Argus, traveled as far west as Fort Riley.
Bay, J. Christian. A Heroine of the Frontier: Miriam Davis Colt in Kansas, 1856. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1941. Bay relied mostly on extracts from Miriam Colt's diaries to retell the story of her family’s tragic involvement with the Vegetarian Colony settlement.
Bremer, Jeff R. “‘A Species of Town-Building Madness’: Quindaro and Kansas Territory, 1856-1862.” Kansas History 26 (Autumn 2003): 156-171. Founded on the banks of the Missouri a few miles north of confluence of the Kansas River, Quindaro was to be a free-state portal, but, as illustrated here, it also was a “boom” town founded by speculators looking for a good financial investment that failed to really survive the “bust” that came just months after the town’s birth.
Brodhead, Michael J., and John D. Unruh, Jr., eds. “Isaiah Harris' `Minutes of a Trip to Kansas Territory' in 1855.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 35 (Winter 1969): 373-385. Like many territorial settlers, Harris removed to Kansas from Ohio for land, not as crusader for the free-state cause.
Brown, Robert L. The Great Pike's Peak Gold Rush. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 1985. The “Rush to the Rockies” in 1859 came while that area was still part of Kansas territory.
Carey, James C. “Juniata: Gateway to Mid-Kansas.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 21 (Summer 1954): 87-94. Often called Dyer’s town for its founder, Juniata was a settlement and crossing on the Blue River in Pottawatomie County and an important point on the Ft. Leavenworth-Ft. Riley Military Road.
Carruth, William H. “The New England Emigrant Aid Company as an Investment Society.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 90-96. Shows financial role of the aid company.
Carruth, William H. “New England in Kansas.” New England Magazine 16 (March 1897): 3-21. Both financial investment in the Emigrant Aid Company and the Santa Fe Railroad proved to be were economic lemons for New Englanders.
Chappell, Phil E. “A History of the Missouri River.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-1906 9 (1906): 237-316. Focuses on river navigation and includes extensive list of “Missouri River Steamboats” with brief descriptions of many.
Clapsaddle, David K. “The Wet and Dry Routes of the Santa Fe Trail.” Kansas History 15 (Summer 1992): 98-115. Trail historian David Clapsaddle here focuses on the use of these alternate routes, crossing present Pawnee and Ford counties, in the late 1850s and 1860s.
Cobb, David Glenn, editor. “Letters of David R. Cobb, 1858-1864; Pioneer of Bourbon County.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 11 (February 1942): 65-71. The 1858 letter of a farmer, local office holder, and legislator, which describes his arrival and impression of Kansas Territory; three additional letters from Topeka in 1864 when he served in legislature.
Cole, Fannie E. “Pioneer Life in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 353-358. The author settled on farm north of Topeka with her parents in 1855.
Colt, Miriam. Went to Kansas: Being a Thrilling Account of an Ill-fated Expedition to that Fairy Land, and Its Sad Results; Together with a Sketch of the Life of the Author. Watertown, N.Y.: L. Ingalls, 1862. Mrs. Colt's unsettling experiences in the Neosho Valley were disastrous for her family.
Connelley, William E. “Kansas City, Kansas: Its Place in the History of the State.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1919-1922 15 (1922): 181-191. Focuses on William Walker and Wyandot Nation.
Cordley, Richard, D.D. A History of Lawrence, Kansas from the First Settlement to the Close of the Rebellion. Lawrence: Lawrence Journal Press, 1895. The Rev. Cordley (1829-1904), pastor of Lawrence’s Plymouth Congregational Church, moved to Kansas Territory in 1857 and witnessed the events about which he wrote quite vividly, including Quantrill’s 1863 raid.
Denison, William W. “Early Days in Osage County.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1926-1928 17 (1928): 375-383. Denison's father moved his family to a claim near Burlingame in 1855; comments on Civil War service and Kansas GAR.
Farley, Alan W. “Annals of Quindaro: A Kansas Ghost Town.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 22 (Winter 1956): 305-320. Established in Wyandotte County, early in 1856, Quindaro was to be “a friendly portal for antislavery partisans to enter and leave Kansas.”
Gable, Frank M. “Memoirs of a Pioneer of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1923-1925 16 (1925): 576-581. About the experiences of settlers in Leavenworth County, 1850s.
Gambone, Joseph G. “Economic Relief in Kansas, 1860-1861.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 36 (Summer 1970): 149-174. The severe drought of 1859 and 1860 caused wide-spread suffering, a short-term population decline, and was the focus of a major relief effort, organized and financed by many of the same individuals who had been supporting the free-state cause in the territory.
Gambone, Joseph G., editor. “Kansas--A Vegetarian Utopia: The Letters of John Milton Hadley, 1855-1856.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 38 (Spring 1972): 65-87. Hadley, an Indiana Quaker, participated in establishment of this colony on Neosho River in southeastern Kansas.
Gates, Paul Wallace. “A Fragment of Kansas Land History: The Disposal of the Christian Indian Tract.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 6 (August 1937): 227-240. Gates examines “the struggle for possession of the Christian [or Munsee] Indian tract” in northeastern Kansas, complicated by the fact that none of land was part of the public domain or legally available for settlement when white “squatter” onslaught began in 1854.
Gilbert, Benjamin Franklin. “Pike's Peak or Bust: A Summary of the Colorado Mining Rushes.” Journal of the West 4 (January 1965): 21-26. The early gold strikes were in the western part of the territory of Kansas.
Gill, Helen G. “The Establishment of Counties in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 449-472. Includes numerous maps depicting dates of organization, 1855-1904.
Glick, George W. “The Drought of 1860.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-1906 9 (1906): 480-485. Includes a “Statement of General Relief Distributed” by county; Glick was the state’s first Democratic governor, 1883-1885, and a wealth Atchison businessman.
Glick, George W. “The Railroad Convention of 1860.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-1906 9 (1906): 467-480. C.K. Holliday and others called this convention “to plan and devise a scheme for securing a practical railroad system”; the article includes some convention minutes and a map showing suggested routes.
Godsey, Flora Rosenquist. “The Early Settlement and Raid on the `Upper Neosho'.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1923-1925 16 (1925): 451-463. Focuses on 1855 settlement in Lyon County, Kansas Territory, and the “free-state” raid on Neosho Rapids in 1856; a related document is “Letter of John C. Van Gundy to William E. Connelley.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1926-1928 17 (1928): 593-601.
Goodnow, Isaac T. “Personal Reminiscences and Kansas Emigration, 1855.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1886-1888 4 (1890): 244-253. In a “paper read before the meeting of the State Historical Society,” Professor Goodnow detailed the experiences of the group he came to K.T. with and the happenings around his claim near Manhattan.
Goodrich, DeWitt C. “The Exodus to Kansas in 1855.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 388-396. As a boy of ten, the author was part of the migration from the Eastern and Middle Western states.
Gower, Calvin W. “Aids to Prospective Prospectors: Guidebooks and Letters From Kansas Territory, 1858-1860.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 43 (Spring 1977): 67-77. The author reviews many of the more important of these interesting promotional publications, including The New Gold Mines of Western Kansas and Emigrants’ Guide to Pike’s Peak.
Gower, Calvin W. “Gold Fever in Kansas Territory: Migration to the Pike's Peak Gold Fields, 1858-1860.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 39 (Spring 1973): 58-74. Discusses impact of gold rush on the population of eastern Kansas at a time when much of Colorado was still part of Kansas Territory.
Gower, Calvin W. “Kansas Territory and the Pike's Peak Gold Rush: Governing the Gold Region.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 32 (Autumn 1966): 289-313. The focus here is on the difficulties of governing a region far removed from the centers of population and government.
Greene, Albert R. “The Kansas River--Its Navigation.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-1906 9 (1906): 317-358. Closely linked to and an important means of transportation through the territorial period; includes numerous excerpts from contemporary newspapers referencing steamboats.
Greene, Max. The Kansas Region: forests, prairie, desert, mountains, vale, and river. Descriptions of scenery, climate, wild productions, capabilities of soil, and commercial resources; interspersed with incidents of travel . . . to which are added directions as to routes, outfit for the pioneer, and sketches of desirable localities for present settlement. New York: Fowler and Wells, 1856.
Gunn, Otis Berthoude. New Map and hand-book of Kansas & the gold mines. Containing descriptions and statistics of the Indian tribes, settlement, soil productions, climate, roads, rail roads, telegraphs, mail routes, land districts, legislatures, etc. . . . Pittsburgh, Pa.: W. S. Haven, 1859.
Hale, Edward E. Kanzas and Nebraska: The history, geographical and physical characteristics, and political position of those territories; an account of the emigrant aid companies, and directions to emigrants. Boston: Phillips, Sampson & Co., 1854. Facsimile of 1854 edition, Black Heritage Library Collection, Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press, 1972.
Herring, Joseph B. “The Chippewa and Munsee Indians: Acculturation and Survival in Kansas, 1850s-1870.” Kansas History 6 (Winter 1983/84): 212-220. These two tribes settled in Franklin County, where small bands from each resisted removal, retained their lands, and merged into white society.
Hickman, Russell K. “Speculative Activities of the Emigrant Aid Company.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 4 (August 1935): 235-267. One element of the struggle for Kansas was, as Hickman pointed out, the “conflict between two economic systems,” and here he focused on Eli Thayer's company, incorporated in 1854, as capitalist venture that actually survived until 1897.
Hickman, Russell K. “The Vegetarian and Octagon Settlement Companies.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 2 (November 1933): 377-385. “Experimental” colonies established on Neosho River during the 1850s by the Vegetarian Kansas Emigration Company, which “was the first to adopt the Octagon plan of settlement.”
Lindquist, Emory. “The Swedes in Kansas Before the Civil War.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 19 (August 1951): 254-268. Although their numbers were quite small during this period of sectional strife, Swedes were familiar with Kansas and the beginnings of a sizable Swedish migration started as early as 1855.
Mackey, William H., Sr. “Looking Backward.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 642-654. Mackey removed to Kansas with a company of Ohio and Kentucky settlers in April 1855 and settled in the Fort Riley area.
Malin, James C. “Kansas: Some Reflections on Culture Inheritance and Originality [1854-1905].” Journal of the Central Mississippi Valley American Studies Association 2 (Fall 1961): 3-19. New Englanders were relatively few in number but had considerable influence on events of territorial Kansas.
McFarland, Gerald W. A Scattered People: An American Family Moves West. New York: Pantheon Books, 1985. The family in question is the author's, which just happened to include John Brown and Rev. Samuel Adair of the Osawatomie area.
Mead, James R. “The Saline River Country in 1859.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-1906 9 (1906): 8-19. Mead, an active participant in the area’s settlement and development, recorded here some personal observations on the land and its inhabitants (especially Indians and buffalo).
Moffette, Joseph F. The Territories of Kansas and Nebraska. Being an Account of their Geography, Resources and Settlements, etc. New York: J. H. Colton and Company, 1855. An eighty-four-page guidebook with maps.
Moore, Ely. “The Lecompton Party Which Located Denver.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 446-452. Account of organizational meetings and individual participants who located, founded, and named the town-site that became Colorado's capital city (1857-1858).
Morrow, Robert. “Emigration to Kansas In 1856.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 302-315. The recollections of an early Lawrence resident.
Morse, Mrs. O. E. “Sketch of the Life and Work of Augustus Wattles.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1926-1928 17 (1928): 290-299. Wattles, a New Englander, settled in Linn County and became an active freestater.
Mudge, Melville R., ed. “Benjamin Franklin Mudge: A Letter From Quindaro.” Kansas History 13 (Winter 1990/1991): 218-222. Mudge's letter to his brother dated February 22, 1862, gives considerable attention to the movement of contrabands across the border.
Murphy, Lawrence R. Frontier Crusader—William F. M. Arny. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1972. Arny promoted territorial Kansas as a leader of a colony that settled in Anderson County and subsequently was an Organizer of the Kansas National Relief Committee to provide relief for victims of drought; Arny left Kansas for New Mexico in 1862.
Napier, Rita. “Economic Democracy in Kansas: Speculation and Townsite Preemption in Kickapoo.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 40 (Autumn 1974): 349-369. Established by Weston, Missouri, developers on the Kansas side of river in 1854, Kickapoo was one of many towns to vie for role as commercial center.
Pantle, Alberta, compiler and editor. “The Connecticut Kansas Colony: Letters of Charles B. Lines to the New Haven (Conn.) Daily Palladium.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 22 (Spring 1956): 1-50; concluded, 22 (Summer 1956):138-188. Lines was an organizer and leader of the Connecticut Kansas Colony, better known as the “Beecher Bible and Rifle Company, and his letters cover the period of their journey west in April through August 23, 1856.
Parker, Nathan H. The Kansas and Nebraska Hand-Book, For 1857-8. With a New and Accurate Map. Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1857. The author of similar handbooks for Iowa and Minnesota, Parker aimed to provide “practical information” to “serve as a Guide to the immigrant and traveller, giving full and reliable statements as to the past history, present condition, and future prospects of the ‘Garden of the West.’”
Quastler, I. E. “Charting a Course: Lawrence, Kansas, and Its Railroad Strategy, 1854-1872.” Kansas History 18 (Spring 1995): 18-33. For a time, civic and business leaders sought to make Lawrence the regional rail center with an aggressive promotion's plan, but they ultimately, and perhaps inevitably, lost the prize to Kansas City; this piece is largely drawn from the author's 1979 book-length study, The Railroads of Lawrence.
Redpath, James, and Richard J. Hinton. Hand-book to Kansas Territory and the Rocky Mountains' Gold Region; Accompanied by Reliable Maps and a Preliminary Treatise on the Pre-emption Laws of the U. S. New York: J. H. Colton, Publisher, 1859. Written and compiled by two principal journalist/actors in the early Kansas drama, “this Guide-Book” sought “to present a concise and impartial view of all important particulars” of interest to the emigrant.
Ropes, Hannah Anderson. Six Months in Kansas. By a Lady. Boston: J. P. Jewett, 1856. The author traveled from Massachusetts to Kansas Territory in September 1855, and pulished here the letters she wrote home during her trip to and stay in Lawrence.
"Selections from the Hyatt Manuscripts.” Kansas Historical Collections 1875-1878 1-2 (1881): 203-221. Thaddeus Hyatt was president of National Kansas Committee in 1856, and these “selections” are from collected statements by early settlers—only a few of which are reproduced here—regarding their experiences.
Sheridan, Richard B. “From Slavery in Missouri to Freedom in Kansas: The Influx of Black Fugitives and Contrabands Into Kansas, 1854-1865.” Kansas History 12 (Spring 1989): 28-47. In this critical look at the black experience in Civil War era Kansas, Sheridan discusses the emergence of a black community in Leavenworth, the Underground Railroad and that “small group of ardent abolitionist” who operated its stations, the “overpowering Negrophobic white majority” in Kansas before and after the war, the African American military experience, and much more.
Shields, Clara M. Fengel. “The Lyon Creek Settlement.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1915-1918 13 (1918): 143-170. Focuses on a German colony in Marion, Dickinson, and Geary counties located first in 1857; later settlers came from Wisconsin and directly from Germany.
Shortridge, James R. “People of the New Frontier: Kansas Population Origins, 1865.” Kansas History 14 (Autumn 1991): 186-205. With numerous maps, charts, and tables Shortridge analyzes the cultural differences among the territory’s population and its impact on the Kansas conflict.
Smith, Alice Strieby. “Through the Eyes of My Father: Fragments of Council Grove Frontier History.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1926-1928 17 (1928): 708-718. C. H. Strieby had come first to Council Grove in 1857 where he worked as a blacksmith.
Socolofsky, Homer E. “Wyandot Floats.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 36 (Autumn 1970): 241-304. Unassigned lands granted to thirty-five Wyandot chiefs and leading men to assure approval of the treaty of removal in 1842; these “floating grants” were not usable until 1855 and thereafter most were used on Kansas town sites of choice agricultural lands.
"Some Letters.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1915-1918 14 (1918): 94-122. Reprinted here are twenty wonderful letters from the collections of the KSHS written by a young John J. Ingalls to his father; the first is date Sumner, K.T., October 5,1858, and the last Topeka, May 15, 1861.
Spear, Stephen Jackson. “Reminiscences of the Early Settlement of Dragoon Creek, Wabaunsee County.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-1914 13 (1914): 345-363. Removed from Iowa to establish Kansas farm in September 1857.
Staudenraus, P. J. “Immigrants or Invaders? A Document.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 24 (Winter 1958): 394-398. The document is a letter dated September 26, 1856, and is related to Free-state colonization efforts and activities of Edward Daniels of Ripon, Wisconsin.
Stewart, Donald W. “Memoirs of Watson Stewart: 1855-1860.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 18 (November 1950): 376-404. Settled first in ill-fated vegetarian colony in Allen County.
Turk, Eleanor L. “The Germans of Atchison, 1854-1859: Development of an Ethnic Community.” Kansas History 2 (Autumn 1979): 146-156. An early sizeable ethnic community.
Veale, George W. “Coming In and Going Out.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 5-12. The author's KSHS presidential address was a reminiscence of his early experiences, especially in 1850s Quindaro.
White, Mrs. S. B. “My First Days in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collections 11 (1909-1910): 550-560. With her lawyer husband, Mrs. White settled at Junction City in 1855.
Whiting, Albe B. “Some Western Border Conditions in the 50's and 60's.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 1-10. The KSHS presidential address of an early settler in the area northwest of Fort Riley commenting primarily on Indian raids.